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By Lynn Thorndike

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By Lynn Thorndike

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2 Words might be spoken, in which case they "111t1St be uttered in a proper tone of voice by a duly qualified man," or they might be written, in which case the material upon which they were written might be of importance, a 111 speaking ()f mortuary magic we have already noted the employment of pictures, models, mannikins, and other images, figures, and objects, Wax figures were also used in sorcery," and amulets are found from the first, although their particular Forms seem to have altered with different periods," Scarabs are of course the most familiar example.

Incidentally let me add that this notion that in the past orientals were n10re superstitious and fond of 1 Fossey, p, 83. tu«. pp. 89"'91. F. Kiichler, B eitriigl' cur Kcnninis der Assyr» t Babvl. a Kom.. mentor, Leipzig, 1904, treats of twenty facsimile pages of cunei.. form. a Lenorrnant, p. -tu«, 190. p. 159. IS So enlightened in fact that they spoke with SOtl1C scorn of the "levity" and "lies" of the Greeks.. INTRODUCTION I 21 marvels than westerners in the same stage of civilization and that the orient must needs be the source of every superstitious cult and romantic tale is a glib assumption which I do not intend to make and which our subsequent investigation will scarcely substantiate.

Already the parts of animals are a favorite ingredient in medical compounds, especially those connected with the organs of generation, on which account they were presumably looked upon as life-giving, or those which were recommended mainly by their nastiness and were probably thought to expel the demons of disease by their disagreeable properties. In ancient Egypt, however, disease seems 110t to have been identified with possession by demons to the extent that it was in ancient Assyria and Babylonia.

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