By P. Bernier
This edited paintings includes 8 wide, review-type contributions by means of prime scientists within the box of artificial metals. The authors have been invited by means of the organisers of the overseas convention on technological know-how and expertise of man-made Metals '98 (ICSM'98) to check the growth of analysis some time past twenty years in a unifying and pedagogical demeanour. the current paintings highlights the cutting-edge of the sphere and assesses the clients for destiny learn.
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Additional info for Advances in Synthetic Metals: Twenty years of progress in science and technology
Benzene and higher aromatic homologues could be subjected to oxidative coupling with aluminum trichloride and copper dichloride , a reaction that involves formation of the radical cation, its coupling with a neutral compound and rearomatization of the intermediate dihydrounits by a sequence of electron and proton transfers (scheme 7 (1)). The reaction is not regioselective and provides ortho-, meta- and para-coupled phenylene units. Experimental conditions seem to play a delicate role, since oxidation in liquid sulfur dioxide at low temperature and the presence of acids favors para-coupling.
Thus, Advances in Synthetic Metals 28 monodisperse, well-defined oligophenylenes related to polymers polytetrahydropyrene 50 and ladder-poly(para-phenylene) 52 have been synthesized  and carefully characterized to arrive at a determination of the effective conjugation length in PPPs [20c]. One of the most ambitious research fields at the moment is the topic of molecular electronics, which is even accelerated by the drastically growing industrial demand for smaller and faster electronic devices .
Thus, the Nanthraquinone substituted PPy 108 catalyzes the reduction of oxygen by the rapid redox reaction between the N-attached anthraquinone and oxygen [ 169]. Kovacic reported on the synthesis of phenyl- and benzyl-substituted poly(N-methylpyrrole)s starting from the corresponding 2,5-dibromopyrroles 110 (scheme 27), R Kovacic + B r ~ B r I CH3 Mg + Ni(ll) - M gBr2 - Ni(I) R = Ph, -CH2Ph 110 Scheme 27 Kovacicmethod for the preparation of PAPys. I R 52 Advances in Synthetic Metals which were converted into the analogous Grignard compounds and oxidatively coupled by more than stoichiometric amounts of Ni(II)-complexes .