By Christopher M. Davidson
The Gulf monarchies (Saudi Arabia and its 5 smaller neighbours: the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, and Bahrain) have lengthy been ruled by means of hugely autocratic and doubtless anachronistic regimes. but regardless of bloody conflicts on their doorsteps, fast-growing populations, and strong modernising and globalising forces impacting on their principally conservative societies, they've got established impressive resilience. Obituaries for those conventional monarchies have usually been penned, yet even now those absolutist, virtually medieval, entities nonetheless seem to pose an identical conundrum as ahead of: within the wake of the 2011 Arab Spring and the autumn of incumbent presidents in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya, the it appears steadfast Gulf monarchies have, before everything look, re-affirmed their prestige because the heart East s purely actual bastions of balance. during this ebook, even though, famous Gulf professional Christopher Davidson contends that the cave in of those kings, emirs, and sultans goes to ensue, and was once consistently going to. whereas the innovative hobbies in North Africa, Syria, and Yemen will undeniably function vital, if oblique, catalysts for the arrival upheaval, a few of the comparable socio-economic pressures that have been increase within the Arab republics are actually additionally a great deal found in the Gulf monarchies. it really is now not an issue of if but if the West s steadfast allies fall. this can be a daring declare to make yet Davidson, who adequately forecast the commercial turmoil that stricken Dubai in 2009, has an enviable checklist in diagnosing social and political adjustments afoot within the zone.
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Additional resources for After the Sheikhs: The Coming Collapse of the Gulf Monarchies
Vol. 3, Sage studies in contemporary political sociology. Beverly Hills, Sage Publications. Huntington, Samuel P. (1991): The Third Wave—Democratization in the Late 20th Century. Norman, OK, University of Oklahoma Press. The Initiative & Referendum Institute Europe (IRI Europe) (2005):. Guidebook to Direct Democracy—In Switzerland and Beyond. 2005 Edition. Amsterdam, The Initiative & Referendum Institute Europe. Lehmbruch, Gerhard (1967): Proporzdemokratie. Politisches System und Politische Kultur in der Schweiz und in Österreich.
21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Number of Recommendations1 35 32 30 Weight of Interest Group2 40 37 35 29 29 27 21 20 16 15 15 12 12 11 11 10 10 9 9 8 34 34 32 26 25 21 20 20 17 17 16 16 15 15 14 14 13 8 8 8 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 13 13 13 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 6 6 6 11 11 11 1 Number of registered recommendations on the forty ballot issues voted on in Switzerland between November 1993 and September 1997. For those interest groups with fewer than six recommendations each, the distribution of recommendations within the sample was as follows (number of interest groups in parentheses): 5 recommendations (12 interest groups); 4 recommendations (15 interest groups); 3 recommendations (22 interest groups); 2 recommendations (42 interest groups); 1 recommendation (138 interest groups).
Ref. Ref. Init. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Init. Init. Ref. Ref. Init. Ref. Ref. Init. 13 The special case of Bretton Woods apart, there were five clear instances of external or internal integration issues. The 1986 referendum on joining the United Nations and the 1992 referendum on joining the European Economic Area concerned the external integration of Switzerland within the international community. 3 Data Analysis (I): More vs. 001). For integration policies, however, the number of cases is too low for the results to be statistically significant.