By Stephen Kinzer
With breezy storytelling and diligent learn, Kinzer has reconstructed the CIA's 1953 overthrow of the elected chief of Iran, Mohammad Mossadegh, who was once wildly renowned at domestic for having nationalized his country's oil undefined.
The coup ushered within the lengthy and brutal dictatorship of Mohammad Reza Shah, extensively obvious as a U.S. puppet and himself overthrown by means of the Islamic revolution of 1979. At its most sensible this paintings reads like a secret agent novel, with code names and informants, hour of darkness conferences with the monarch and a last-minute plot twist whilst the CIA's plan, referred to as Operation Ajax, approximately is going awry.
A veteran ny instances overseas correspondent and the writer of books on Nicaragua (Blood of Brothers) and Turkey (Crescent and Star), Kinzer has combed memoirs, educational works, executive files and information tales to provide this blow-by-blow account. He exhibits that till early in 1953, nice Britain and the Anglo-Iranian Oil corporation have been the imperialist baddies of this story. Intransigent within the face of Iran's calls for for a fairer percentage of oil gains and higher stipulations for employees, British international Secretary Herbert Morrison exacerbated stress along with his perspective that the problem from Iran used to be, in Kinzer's phrases, "a easy subject of ignorant natives rebelling opposed to the forces of civilization." earlier than the situation peaked, a high-ranking worker of Anglo-Iranian wrote to a superb that the company's alliance with the "corrupt ruling classes" and "leech-like bureaucracies" have been "disastrous, outmoded and impractical."
This stands as a textbook lesson in how to not behavior international policy.
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Additional info for All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror
Although 19 retired officials from the Welfare Ministry who were employed in the SIA through amakudari returned their summer bonuses to take responsibility, six former officials from the ministry and two former chiefs of the SIA refused. 37 Although on 11 July an independent panel was set up to try to assess the credibility of all of the claims, most have not been cleared. 5 per cent of the records and that the former heads of the SIA and former welfare ministers were to blame for the mishap. 1057/9780230595064 - Why Japan Can't Reform, Susan Carpenter 24 Why Japan Can't Reform post-retirement positions for bureaucrats and the ways that Social Security revenue is used to fund public projects.
1057/9780230595064 - Why Japan Can't Reform, Susan Carpenter Introduction 17 The image of reform: amakudari METI agreed to the discontinuation of amakudari in JNOC, but only if the system was allowed to continue in the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), a METI Special Corporation. It was a coup for METI since JETRO’s operations had been receiving negative press in Japan and in the United States about its operations since 1995. JETRO maintains 73 offices in 54 countries and 36 branches in Japan.
Nevertheless, scholars continued to extol the skills of an elite class of bureaucrat who appeared to put the state before personal gain. But the image of the skill and the dedication of elite career officials that had been well-documented by both academics and commentators worldwide was tarnished in the early 1990s by a number of scandals regarding collusion between the ministries and business. Consequently, a disillusioned public began to closely scrutinize the civil service system, principally the amakudari system and public corporations.