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By Jerrold E. Marsden, Michael J. Hoffman

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By Jerrold E. Marsden, Michael J. Hoffman

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The point, rather, is that finding the specific areas in which such impact has taken place is made impossible by reliance on the construct. The kind of linguistically expressed conceptual modeling embodied in El dia de dar gracias and mäquina de contestar is rampant among U. S. Hispanics. But if one is to distinguish linguistic creativity pressed in the service of cultural imitation from true linguistic imitation, a case-by-case approach must be used. Under analysis, utterances that would first pass unnoticed may turn out to be clear manifestations of linguistic mimesis, while highly stigmatized loan translations will turn out to be innovative exploitations of an untouched traditional system.

18 The standard assumption is made here that the concepts expressed by means of combinations of semantic and structural units are not language but the product of language. 19 Once one draws sharply the distinction between linguistic resources and their use — a distinction which has long 30 Ricardo Otheguy commanded consensus among linguists — the only conceptual elements that can properly be said to be part of language are those that are encoded in lexical or structural form. All other conceptualizations are derived from, but do not constitute part of, language.

S. Latinos are certainly giving strong evidence of cultural adaptation. But they are not engaged in linguistic modeling, since the lexical and grammatical systems through which the cultural adaptation is being expressed have themselves remained unchanged. 13 (b) A new usage of the second kind is illustrated by the name often given in U. S. Spanish to telephone answering machines, namely mäquina de contestar, a formulation based on the verb contestar 'to answer' and on mäquina 'machine'. In contrast, the general Spanish designation for this appliance is contestador, or contestador automätico, a formulation based on a noun derived from the same verb contestar 'to answer', combined with the word automätico 'automatic'.

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