By Helmut E. Graeb
What you’ll locate here's a interesting compendium of basic challenge formulations of analog layout centering and sizing. This crucial paintings presents a differentiated wisdom concerning the projects of analog layout centering and sizing. particularly, worst-case eventualities are formulated and analyzed. This paintings is correct on the crossing aspect among procedure and layout expertise, and is either reference paintings and textbook for realizing CAD equipment in analog sizing.
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Additional info for Analog Design Centering and Sizing
If we illustrate the synthesis process just described in a plane with design level and design view as coordinates, we obtain a synthesis path as shown in Figure 11. This figure reflects that both structural and parametric synthesis generally rely on function evaluations, which happen in a behavioral view. This leads to periodical switches to the behavioral view within the synthesis flow that can be illustrated with a “fir”-like path. A top-down design process as just described requires on each level adequate models from the lower design levels.
The part of the design process that targets at maximum yield is equally called yield maximization or design centering. Figures 16 and 17 illustrate that the result of nominal design does not lead to a maximum yield. The first reason for that is the mentioned nonlinearity of the performance with respect to the parameters, which leads to skewing equal safety margins of the performance with respect to its lower and upper bounds in the parameter space. 1 0 0 4 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 0 0 0 4 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 0 Figure 18.
D) Nonlinear tolerance region. A vector inequality of the form x ≤ y assumes that x, y ∈ Rnx and is defined as (12) x≤y ⇔ ∀ xµ ≤ yµ µ Figure 19 illustrates the four types of tolerance regions. The box region according to (8), illustrated in Figure 19(a), is the prevalent type of range-parameter tolerances. It results if minimum and maximum values for each range parameter are specified. The dashed line in Figure 19(a) for instance corresponds to the upper bound of parameter xr,1 ≤ xr,U,1 . In many cases, the tolerance region Tr will be closed, that means a finite range of values will be given for each range parameter.