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By Maria Leppakari

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By Maria Leppakari

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Pp. 47–49, 123–124; her tentative model contains four basic elements in contexts where messianism as a phenomenon is important: time, place, we—the others, the Messiah figure, p. 170. Gullin-Hofstedt, however, emphasizes messianic rather than millenarian characteristics. introduction 25 the sense of distinguishing or otherwise qualifying who will be saved and who will not. The community of the saved may be identical with a particular and inscriptively defined group (people, race) or part there of, or with an electively defined part of mankind; or it may broaden its scope and embrace the whole cosmos.

The Evolutionary Origins of the Religious Thought 2001: 38–40, 46–47 with the emphasis on mental resources. Claudia Strauss and Naomi Quinn challenges the “taken-forgranted” concepts of culture in their book A Cognitive Theory of Cultural Meaning (1997) 1999. They argue that “in order to rethink culture, we need to understand how human beings construct meanings”, p. xiii. Strauss & Quinn define meanings by combining earlier behaviourist aspects “meanings are defined by their stimuli and responses” with the ideational statement that “meanings are ideas in people’s heads”, p.

36 In order to clarify this aspect of success or communication, Sperber develops a model for the ‘epidemiology of representations’ where the ‘epidemic’ metaphor refers to the process of transformation that the different representations go through. Since the focus in this study has been placed on the idea of the apocalypse, our concern is with how the various symbols and representations of Jerusalem make the city into a millenarian vision of a future earthly paradise. This identification of Jerusalem as a symbol in the apocalyptic frame of thought concerns past, present and future, and over thousands of years the symbol has gone through many transformations, becoming, to use Sperber’s terminology, a sort of cultural representation.

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