By Prof. L. Brandsma, Prof. H. D. Verkruijsse, Prof. S. F. Vasilevsky (auth.)
Homogeneous catalysis is a vital technique for the synthesis of high-valued chemical compounds. L. Brandsma has rigorously chosen and checked the experimental strategies illustrating the catalytic use of copper, nickel, and palladium compounds in natural synthesis. All techniques are on a preparative scale, make financial use of solvents and catalysts, keep away from poisonous components and feature excessive yields.
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Extra info for Application of Transition Metal Catalysts in Organic Synthesis
2 g) of Z-1,4-dihydroxy-2-butene (commercially available) and 80 ml of diethyl ether, while keeping the temperature at 0 to 10°C.
Bull. Soc. Chim. France (1971) 990. 0 molar (furancarboxylic acid). Apparatus: 1-1 round-bottomed flask, equipped with a dropping funnel and a very efficient condenser (a so-called cold finger, filled with ice and ice water, is recommended) for the bromination; 2-L, wide-necked, round-bottomed flask for the saponification; 1-1 round-bottomed flask, equipped with an efficient reflux condenser for the decarboxylation. 0 mol (112 g) of (commercially available) 2-furancarboxylic acid and 140 ml of methanol was cautiously added under manual swirling and some cooling 40 ml of 96% sulfuric acid.
Comm. ) Anhydrous liquid ammonia (see Note 1) (-500 ml) was introduced from a cylinder into the first flask. 6 g) of sodium was introduced in two pieces with vigorous stirring and introduction of air (or oxygen from a cylinder, see Note 2) during 1 minute. Ferric nitrate (n H 2 0) (-250 mg) was then introduced. When after a short time the blue colour had changed into grey, the remaining sodium was quickly introduced in -1 g portions. As a rule, the conversion into sodamide is complete within half an hour.