Download Atlas of Human Anatomy (6th Edition) by Frank H. Netter PDF

By Frank H. Netter

The twenty fifth anniversary version of Frank H. Netter, MD’s Atlas of Human Anatomy celebrates his unsurpassed depiction of the human physique in transparent, tremendous aspect - all from a clinician’s viewpoint. With its emphasis on anatomic relationships and clinically correct perspectives, this easy source quick grew to become the number one bestselling human anatomy atlas around the globe, and it maintains to supply a coherent, lasting visible vocabulary for figuring out anatomy and the way it applies to medication this day. Dr. Netter introduced the hand of a grasp scientific illustrator, the mind of a doctor and the soul of an artist to his illustrations of the human physique, and his paintings keeps to educate and encourage.

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By Frank H. Netter

The twenty fifth anniversary version of Frank H. Netter, MD’s Atlas of Human Anatomy celebrates his unsurpassed depiction of the human physique in transparent, tremendous aspect - all from a clinician’s viewpoint. With its emphasis on anatomic relationships and clinically correct perspectives, this easy source quick grew to become the number one bestselling human anatomy atlas around the globe, and it maintains to supply a coherent, lasting visible vocabulary for figuring out anatomy and the way it applies to medication this day. Dr. Netter introduced the hand of a grasp scientific illustrator, the mind of a doctor and the soul of an artist to his illustrations of the human physique, and his paintings keeps to educate and encourage.

Show description

Read Online or Download Atlas of Human Anatomy (6th Edition) PDF

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Clivus Temporal bone Squamous part Petrous part Groove for lesser petrosal nerve Groove for greater petrosal nerve Arcuate eminence Trigeminal impression Groove for superior petrosal sinus Groove for sigmoid sinus Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa Parietal bone Groove for middle meningeal vessels (parietal branches) Mastoid angle Occipital bone Clivus Groove for inferior petrosal sinus Basilar part Groove for posterior meningeal vessels Condyle Groove for transverse sinus Groove for occipital sinus Internal occipital crest Internal occipital protuberance Groove for superior sagittal sinus Bones and Ligaments Plate 11 1 Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View See also Plate 10 Nasopalatine nerve Sphenopalatine vessels Greater palatine nerve and vessels Lesser palatine nerve and vessels Greater petrosal nerve Lesser petrosal nerve Mandibular nerve (V3) Accessory meningeal artery Middle meningeal vessels Meningeal branch of mandibular nerve (V3) Internal carotid artery Carotid autonomic plexus Incisive fossa Greater palatine foramen Lesser palatine foramen Foramen lacerum Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Carotid canal Chorda tympani of facial (intermediate) nerve (VIII) Petrotympanic fissure Tympanic branch of glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Auricular branch of vagus nerve (X) Tympanic canaliculus Mastoid canaliculus Facial nerve (VII) Stylomastoid foramen Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Vagus nerve (X) Accessory nerve (XI) Superior bulb Internal jugular vein Mastoid emissary vein Posterior meningeal artery Jugular fossa Mastoid foramen Hypoglossal nerve (XII) Hypoglossal canal Medulla oblongata Vertebral arteries and venous plexus Spinal roots of accessory nerves (XI) Foramen magnum Plate 12 Bones and Ligaments Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Superior View See also Plate 11 Foramen cecum Emissary vein to superior sagittal sinus Nasal slit Anterior ethmoidal foramen Anterior ethmoidal artery, vein, and nerve Foramina of cribriform plate Olfactory nerves Posterior ethmoidal foramen Posterior ethmoidal artery, vein, and nerve Optic canal Optic nerve (II) Ophthalmic artery Superior orbital fissure Oculomotor nerve (III) Trochlear nerve (IV) Lacrimal, frontal, and nasociliary branches of ophthalmic nerve (V1) Abducent nerve (VI) Superior ophthalmic vein Foramen rotundum Maxillary nerve (V2) Foramen ovale Mandibular nerve (V3) Accessory meningeal artery Lesser petrosal nerve Foramen spinosum Middle meningeal artery and vein Meningeal branch of mandibular nerve Sphenoidal emissary foramen (of Vesalius) (inconstant) Foramen lacerum Carotid canal Hiatus for Lesser petrosal nerve Hiatus for Greater petrosal nerve Internal acoustic meatus Facial nerve (VII) Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) Labyrinthine artery Opening of vestibular aqueduct Mastoid foramen (inconstant) Bones and Ligaments Greater petrosal nerve Internal carotid artery Internal carotid nerve plexus Endolymphatic duct Emissary vein (and occasional branch of occipital artery) Jugular foramen Inferior petrosal sinus Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Vagus nerve (X) Accessory nerve (XI) Sigmoid sinus Posterior meningeal artery Condylar canal (inconstant) Emissary vein and meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery Hypoglossal canal Hypoglossal nerve (XII) Foramen magnum Medulla oblongata Meninges Vertebral arteries Meningeal branches of vertebral arteries Spinal roots of accessory nerves Plate 13 1 Skull of Newborn See also Plate 6 Lateral view Sphenoidal fontanelle Anterior fontanelle Coronal suture Parietal bone Tuber (eminence) Squamous suture Frontal bone Squamous part Supra-orbital notch (foramen) Posterior fontanelle Lambdoid suture Ethmoidal bone Anterior ethmoidal foramen Orbital plate Occipital bone Mastoid fontanelle Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Temporal bone Maxilla Infra-orbital foramen Squamous part Zygomatic bone Zygomaticofacial foramen Palatine bone Pyramidal process Superior view Frontal (metopic) suture Petrosquamous fissure Sphenoidal bone Greater wing Petrous part (mastoid process absent) Lateral plate of pterygoid process Tympanic part (bony external acoustic meatus absent) Hamulus of medial plate of pterygoid process Oval (vestibular) window Round (cochlear) window Styloid process Mandibular fossa Zygomatic process Frontal bone Anterior fontanelle Coronal suture Parietal bone Sagittal suture Posterior fontanelle Occipital bone Plate 14 Lambdoid suture Bones and Ligaments Bony Framework of Head and Neck See also Plates 6, 19 Temporal bone Sphenoidal bone Temporal fossa Zygomatic arch Condylar process of mandible Mandibular notch Coronoid process of mandible Lateral pterygoid plate (broken line) Hamulus of medial pterygoid plate (broken line) Mastoid process Pterygomandibular raphe (broken line) Mandible External acoustic meatus Ramus Angle Body Atlas (C1) Styloid process Axis (C2) Stylohyoid ligament Hyoid bone Stylomandibular ligament Body Lesser horn Greater horn C3 vertebra Epiglottis C7 vertebra Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Trachea T1 vertebra 1st rib Bones and Ligaments Plate 15 1 Pterygoid Fossae: Posterior and Inferolateral Views See also Plates 39, 40, 41 Posterior view External occipital protuberance (inion) Superior nuchal line External occipital crest Nasal septum Inferior nuchal line Choana (posterior nasal aperture) Foramen magnum Inferior orbital fissure Mastoid foramen Occipitomastoid suture Occipital condyle Mastoid process Lateral pterygoid plate Medial pterygoid plate Styloid process Pterygoid fossa Zygomatic arch Horizontal plate of palatine bone Pyramidal process of palatine bone Inferior concha Tuberosity of maxilla Pterygoid hamulus Palatine process of maxilla Alveolar process of maxilla Incisive fossa Inferolateral view Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Spine of sphenoidal bone Sphenopalatine foramen Pterygopalatine fossa Choanae (posterior nares) Tuberosity of maxilla Infratemporal fossa Alveolar process of maxilla Plate 16 Lateral plate Medial plate Hamulus of pterygoid process Pyramidal process of palatine bone Bones and Ligaments Mandible See also Plate 49 Head Pterygoid fovea Condylar process Neck Coronoid process Mandibular notch Mylohyoid groove Lingula Mandibular foramen Retromolar fossa Oblique line Submandibular fossa Mylohyoid line Sublingual fossa Interalveolar septa Ramus Alveolar part (crest) Mental foramen Mental protuberance Mental tubercle Base of mandible Angle Body Coronoid process Head Condylar process Lingula Mandibular foramen Neck Mandibular notch Mylohyoid groove Pterygoid fovea Ramus Mylohyoid line Angle Bod y Submandibular fossa Sublingual fossa Digastric fossa Superior and inferior mental spines (genial tubercles) Mandible of aged person (edentulous) Bones and Ligaments Plate 17 1 Temporomandibular Joint Lateral view Joint capsule Lateral (temporomandibular) ligament Sphenomandibular ligament Sphenomandibular ligament (phantom) Styloid process Stylomandibular ligament Mandibular nerve and otic ganglion Joint capsule Middle meningeal artery Auriculotemporal nerve Maxillary artery Inferior alveolar nerve Lingual nerve Sphenomandibular ligament Stylomandibular ligament Mandibular fossa Articular disc Articular tubercle Joint capsule Mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery and mylohyoid nerve Medial view Jaws closed Plate 18 Jaws slightly opened Jaws widely opened (hinge action predominates) (hinge and gliding actions combined) Bones and Ligaments Cervical Vertebrae: Atlas and Axis See also Plates 21, 22 Anterior tubercle Articular facet for dens Anterior arch Lateral mass Transverse process Tubercle for transverse ligament of atlas Transverse foramen Superior articular surface of lateral mass for occipital condyle Dens Anterior articular facet (for anterior arch of atlas) Pedicle Superior articular facet for atlas Interarticular part Vertebral foramen Posterior arch Posterior tubercle Groove for vertebral artery Inferior articular facet for C3 Atlas (C1): superior view Axis (C2): anterior view Posterior arch Posterior tubercle Vertebral foramen Transverse process Transverse process Body Dens Superior articular facet for atlas Posterior articular facet (for transverse ligament of atlas) Transverse process Interarticular part Transverse foramen Inferior articular surface of lateral mass for axis Articular facet for dens Anterior arch Anterior tubercle Atlas (C1): inferior view Inferior articular process Spinous process Axis (C2): posterosuperior view Dens Atlas (C1) Superior articular surface for occipital condyle Axis (C2) Posterior articular facet (for transverse ligament of atlas) C3 C4 Upper cervical vertebrae, assembled: posterosuperior view Bones and Ligaments Plate 19 1 Cervical Vertebrae (continued) See also Plates 21, 22 Inferior aspect of C3 and superior aspect of C4 showing the sites of the facet and uncovertebral articulations Bifid spinous process C3 Inferior aspect Lamina Vertebral foramen Inferior articular process and facet Pedicle Foramen transversarium Posterior tubercle Costal lamella Anterior tubercle Transverse process Area for articulation of left uncinate process of C4 Vertebral body Left uncinate process Articular surface of right uncinate process Superior articular process and facet Groove for spinal nerve (C4) C4 Superior aspect Inferior articular process 4th cervical vertebra: anterior view 7th cervical vertebra: anterior view Superior articular process Spinous process Septated foramen transversarium Uncinate process Uncinate process Costal lamella Articular surface Articular surface Superior articular process Lamina Inferior articular facet Posterior tubercle Anterior tubercle Body Foramen transversarium Bony spicule dividing foramen transversarium Transverse process Inferior articular facet for T1 Posterior tubercle Body Anterior tubercle (inconspicuous) Transverse process 7th cervical vertebra (vertebra prominens): superior view Body Uncinate process Costal lamella Foramen transversarium* Inconspicuous anterior tubercle (transverse process) Articular surface of uncinate process Foramen transversarium (septated) Groove for C7 spinal nerve Transverse process (posterior tubercle) Superior articular process and facet Pedicle Inferior articular process Lamina Vertebral foramen Spinous process *The foramina transversaria of C7 transmit vertebral veins, but usually not the vertebral artery, and are asymmetrical in this specimen.

Calvaria See also Plates 101, 102 Superior view Frontal bone Coronal suture Bregma Parietal bone Sagittal suture Parietal foramen (for emissary vein) Lambda Lambdoid suture Sutural (wormian) bone Occipital bone Inferior view Frontal bone Frontal crest Groove for superior sagittal sinus Coronal suture Parietal bone Granular foveolae (for arachnoid granulations) Diploë Grooves for branches of middle meningeal vessels Groove for superior sagittal sinus Sagittal suture Lambdoid suture Occipital bone Bones and Ligaments Plate 9 1 Cranial Base: Inferior View See also Plate 12 Maxilla Incisive fossa Palatine process Intermaxillary suture Zygomatic process Zygomatic bone Frontal bone Sphenoidal bone Pterygoid process Hamulus Medial plate Pterygoid fossa Lateral plate Scaphoid fossa Greater wing Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Spine Palatomaxillary suture Palatine bone Horizontal plate Greater palatine foramen Pyramidal process Lesser palatine foramina Posterior nasal spine Choanae Temporal bone Zygomatic process Articular tubercle Mandibular fossa Styloid process Petrotympanic fissure Carotid canal (external opening) Tympanic canaliculus External acoustic meatus Mastoid canaliculus Mastoid process Stylomastoid foramen Petrous part Mastoid notch (for digastric muscle) Occipital groove (for occipital artery) Jugular fossa (jugular foramen in its depth) Mastoid foramen Vomer Ala Groove for pharyngotympanic (auditory, eustachian) tube Foramen lacerum Parietal bone Occipital bone Hypoglossal canal Occipital condyle Condylar canal and fossa Basilar part Pharyngeal tubercle Foramen magnum Inferior nuchal line External occipital crest Superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance Plate 10 Bones and Ligaments Cranial Base: Superior View See also Plate 13 Frontal bone Groove for superior sagittal sinus Frontal crest Groove for anterior meningeal vessels Foramen cecum Superior surface of orbital part Ethmoidal bone Crista galli Cribriform plate Sphenoidal bone Lesser wing Anterior clinoid process Greater wing Groove for middle meningeal vessels (frontal branches) Body Jugum Prechiasmatic groove Tuberculum sellae Sella Hypophyseal fossa turcica Dorsum sellae Posterior clinoid process Carotid groove (for int.

Clivus Temporal bone Squamous part Petrous part Groove for lesser petrosal nerve Groove for greater petrosal nerve Arcuate eminence Trigeminal impression Groove for superior petrosal sinus Groove for sigmoid sinus Anterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa Parietal bone Groove for middle meningeal vessels (parietal branches) Mastoid angle Occipital bone Clivus Groove for inferior petrosal sinus Basilar part Groove for posterior meningeal vessels Condyle Groove for transverse sinus Groove for occipital sinus Internal occipital crest Internal occipital protuberance Groove for superior sagittal sinus Bones and Ligaments Plate 11 1 Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View See also Plate 10 Nasopalatine nerve Sphenopalatine vessels Greater palatine nerve and vessels Lesser palatine nerve and vessels Greater petrosal nerve Lesser petrosal nerve Mandibular nerve (V3) Accessory meningeal artery Middle meningeal vessels Meningeal branch of mandibular nerve (V3) Internal carotid artery Carotid autonomic plexus Incisive fossa Greater palatine foramen Lesser palatine foramen Foramen lacerum Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Carotid canal Chorda tympani of facial (intermediate) nerve (VIII) Petrotympanic fissure Tympanic branch of glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Auricular branch of vagus nerve (X) Tympanic canaliculus Mastoid canaliculus Facial nerve (VII) Stylomastoid foramen Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Vagus nerve (X) Accessory nerve (XI) Superior bulb Internal jugular vein Mastoid emissary vein Posterior meningeal artery Jugular fossa Mastoid foramen Hypoglossal nerve (XII) Hypoglossal canal Medulla oblongata Vertebral arteries and venous plexus Spinal roots of accessory nerves (XI) Foramen magnum Plate 12 Bones and Ligaments Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Superior View See also Plate 11 Foramen cecum Emissary vein to superior sagittal sinus Nasal slit Anterior ethmoidal foramen Anterior ethmoidal artery, vein, and nerve Foramina of cribriform plate Olfactory nerves Posterior ethmoidal foramen Posterior ethmoidal artery, vein, and nerve Optic canal Optic nerve (II) Ophthalmic artery Superior orbital fissure Oculomotor nerve (III) Trochlear nerve (IV) Lacrimal, frontal, and nasociliary branches of ophthalmic nerve (V1) Abducent nerve (VI) Superior ophthalmic vein Foramen rotundum Maxillary nerve (V2) Foramen ovale Mandibular nerve (V3) Accessory meningeal artery Lesser petrosal nerve Foramen spinosum Middle meningeal artery and vein Meningeal branch of mandibular nerve Sphenoidal emissary foramen (of Vesalius) (inconstant) Foramen lacerum Carotid canal Hiatus for Lesser petrosal nerve Hiatus for Greater petrosal nerve Internal acoustic meatus Facial nerve (VII) Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) Labyrinthine artery Opening of vestibular aqueduct Mastoid foramen (inconstant) Bones and Ligaments Greater petrosal nerve Internal carotid artery Internal carotid nerve plexus Endolymphatic duct Emissary vein (and occasional branch of occipital artery) Jugular foramen Inferior petrosal sinus Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Vagus nerve (X) Accessory nerve (XI) Sigmoid sinus Posterior meningeal artery Condylar canal (inconstant) Emissary vein and meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery Hypoglossal canal Hypoglossal nerve (XII) Foramen magnum Medulla oblongata Meninges Vertebral arteries Meningeal branches of vertebral arteries Spinal roots of accessory nerves Plate 13 1 Skull of Newborn See also Plate 6 Lateral view Sphenoidal fontanelle Anterior fontanelle Coronal suture Parietal bone Tuber (eminence) Squamous suture Frontal bone Squamous part Supra-orbital notch (foramen) Posterior fontanelle Lambdoid suture Ethmoidal bone Anterior ethmoidal foramen Orbital plate Occipital bone Mastoid fontanelle Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Temporal bone Maxilla Infra-orbital foramen Squamous part Zygomatic bone Zygomaticofacial foramen Palatine bone Pyramidal process Superior view Frontal (metopic) suture Petrosquamous fissure Sphenoidal bone Greater wing Petrous part (mastoid process absent) Lateral plate of pterygoid process Tympanic part (bony external acoustic meatus absent) Hamulus of medial plate of pterygoid process Oval (vestibular) window Round (cochlear) window Styloid process Mandibular fossa Zygomatic process Frontal bone Anterior fontanelle Coronal suture Parietal bone Sagittal suture Posterior fontanelle Occipital bone Plate 14 Lambdoid suture Bones and Ligaments Bony Framework of Head and Neck See also Plates 6, 19 Temporal bone Sphenoidal bone Temporal fossa Zygomatic arch Condylar process of mandible Mandibular notch Coronoid process of mandible Lateral pterygoid plate (broken line) Hamulus of medial pterygoid plate (broken line) Mastoid process Pterygomandibular raphe (broken line) Mandible External acoustic meatus Ramus Angle Body Atlas (C1) Styloid process Axis (C2) Stylohyoid ligament Hyoid bone Stylomandibular ligament Body Lesser horn Greater horn C3 vertebra Epiglottis C7 vertebra Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Trachea T1 vertebra 1st rib Bones and Ligaments Plate 15 1 Pterygoid Fossae: Posterior and Inferolateral Views See also Plates 39, 40, 41 Posterior view External occipital protuberance (inion) Superior nuchal line External occipital crest Nasal septum Inferior nuchal line Choana (posterior nasal aperture) Foramen magnum Inferior orbital fissure Mastoid foramen Occipitomastoid suture Occipital condyle Mastoid process Lateral pterygoid plate Medial pterygoid plate Styloid process Pterygoid fossa Zygomatic arch Horizontal plate of palatine bone Pyramidal process of palatine bone Inferior concha Tuberosity of maxilla Pterygoid hamulus Palatine process of maxilla Alveolar process of maxilla Incisive fossa Inferolateral view Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Spine of sphenoidal bone Sphenopalatine foramen Pterygopalatine fossa Choanae (posterior nares) Tuberosity of maxilla Infratemporal fossa Alveolar process of maxilla Plate 16 Lateral plate Medial plate Hamulus of pterygoid process Pyramidal process of palatine bone Bones and Ligaments Mandible See also Plate 49 Head Pterygoid fovea Condylar process Neck Coronoid process Mandibular notch Mylohyoid groove Lingula Mandibular foramen Retromolar fossa Oblique line Submandibular fossa Mylohyoid line Sublingual fossa Interalveolar septa Ramus Alveolar part (crest) Mental foramen Mental protuberance Mental tubercle Base of mandible Angle Body Coronoid process Head Condylar process Lingula Mandibular foramen Neck Mandibular notch Mylohyoid groove Pterygoid fovea Ramus Mylohyoid line Angle Bod y Submandibular fossa Sublingual fossa Digastric fossa Superior and inferior mental spines (genial tubercles) Mandible of aged person (edentulous) Bones and Ligaments Plate 17 1 Temporomandibular Joint Lateral view Joint capsule Lateral (temporomandibular) ligament Sphenomandibular ligament Sphenomandibular ligament (phantom) Styloid process Stylomandibular ligament Mandibular nerve and otic ganglion Joint capsule Middle meningeal artery Auriculotemporal nerve Maxillary artery Inferior alveolar nerve Lingual nerve Sphenomandibular ligament Stylomandibular ligament Mandibular fossa Articular disc Articular tubercle Joint capsule Mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery and mylohyoid nerve Medial view Jaws closed Plate 18 Jaws slightly opened Jaws widely opened (hinge action predominates) (hinge and gliding actions combined) Bones and Ligaments Cervical Vertebrae: Atlas and Axis See also Plates 21, 22 Anterior tubercle Articular facet for dens Anterior arch Lateral mass Transverse process Tubercle for transverse ligament of atlas Transverse foramen Superior articular surface of lateral mass for occipital condyle Dens Anterior articular facet (for anterior arch of atlas) Pedicle Superior articular facet for atlas Interarticular part Vertebral foramen Posterior arch Posterior tubercle Groove for vertebral artery Inferior articular facet for C3 Atlas (C1): superior view Axis (C2): anterior view Posterior arch Posterior tubercle Vertebral foramen Transverse process Transverse process Body Dens Superior articular facet for atlas Posterior articular facet (for transverse ligament of atlas) Transverse process Interarticular part Transverse foramen Inferior articular surface of lateral mass for axis Articular facet for dens Anterior arch Anterior tubercle Atlas (C1): inferior view Inferior articular process Spinous process Axis (C2): posterosuperior view Dens Atlas (C1) Superior articular surface for occipital condyle Axis (C2) Posterior articular facet (for transverse ligament of atlas) C3 C4 Upper cervical vertebrae, assembled: posterosuperior view Bones and Ligaments Plate 19 1 Cervical Vertebrae (continued) See also Plates 21, 22 Inferior aspect of C3 and superior aspect of C4 showing the sites of the facet and uncovertebral articulations Bifid spinous process C3 Inferior aspect Lamina Vertebral foramen Inferior articular process and facet Pedicle Foramen transversarium Posterior tubercle Costal lamella Anterior tubercle Transverse process Area for articulation of left uncinate process of C4 Vertebral body Left uncinate process Articular surface of right uncinate process Superior articular process and facet Groove for spinal nerve (C4) C4 Superior aspect Inferior articular process 4th cervical vertebra: anterior view 7th cervical vertebra: anterior view Superior articular process Spinous process Septated foramen transversarium Uncinate process Uncinate process Costal lamella Articular surface Articular surface Superior articular process Lamina Inferior articular facet Posterior tubercle Anterior tubercle Body Foramen transversarium Bony spicule dividing foramen transversarium Transverse process Inferior articular facet for T1 Posterior tubercle Body Anterior tubercle (inconspicuous) Transverse process 7th cervical vertebra (vertebra prominens): superior view Body Uncinate process Costal lamella Foramen transversarium* Inconspicuous anterior tubercle (transverse process) Articular surface of uncinate process Foramen transversarium (septated) Groove for C7 spinal nerve Transverse process (posterior tubercle) Superior articular process and facet Pedicle Inferior articular process Lamina Vertebral foramen Spinous process *The foramina transversaria of C7 transmit vertebral veins, but usually not the vertebral artery, and are asymmetrical in this specimen.

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