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In liquid water, the rigidity of ice is replaced by fluidity, and the crystalline periodicity of ice gives way to spatial homogeneity. 84 Å). At least half of the hydrogen bonds have nonideal orientations (that is, they are not perfectly straight); consequently, liquid H2O lacks the regular latticelike structure of ice. The space about an O atom is not defined by the presence of four hydrogens, but can be occupied by other water mole- cules randomly oriented so that the local environment, over time, is essentially uniform.

3. Because the pH scale is a logarithmic scale, two solutions whose pH values differ by one pH unit have a 10-fold difference in [Hϩ]. 3. Dissociation of Strong Electrolytes Substances that are almost completely dissociated to form ions in solution are called strong electrolytes. The term electrolyte describes substances capable of generating ions in solution and thereby causing an increase in the electrical conductivity of the solution. Many salts (such as NaCl and K2SO4) fit this category, as do strong acids (such as HCl) and strong bases (such as NaOH).

The participation of each water molecule in an average state of H bonding to its neighbors means that each molecule is connected to every other in a fluid network of H bonds. 5 psec (picoseconds, where 1 psec ϭ 10Ϫ12 sec). 3. In summary, pure liquid water consists of H2O molecules held in a random, three-dimensional network that has a local preference for tetrahedral geometry but contains a large number of strained or broken hydrogen bonds. The presence of strain creates a kinetic situation in which H2O molecules can switch H-bond allegiances; fluidity ensues.

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