By Charles Lessard
This textbook is meant for undergraduate scholars (juniors or seniors) in Biomedical Engineering, with the most aim of supporting those scholars find out about classical keep an eye on idea and its software in physiological platforms. furthermore, scholars might be capable of observe the Laboratory digital Instrumentation Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) Controls and Simulation Modules to mammalian body structure. the 1st 4 chapters evaluate prior paintings on differential equations for electric and mechanical structures. Chapters five via eight current the final varieties and features of suggestions regulate structures and foot locus, frequency reaction, and research of balance and margins. Chapters nine via 12 hide simple LabVIEW programming, the keep watch over module with its pallets, and the simulation module with its pallets. Chapters thirteen via 17 current a number of physiological versions with a number of LabVIEW keep an eye on analyses. those chapters hide keep an eye on of the center (heart expense, stroke quantity, and cardiac output), the vestibular procedure and its position in governing equilibrium and perceived orientation, vestibulo-ocular reflex in stabilizing a picture at the floor of the retina in the course of head flow, mechanical regulate versions of human gait (walking movement), and the breathing keep watch over version. The latter chapters (Chapters 13-17) mix info from my type lecture notes in regard to the appliance of LabVIEW keep an eye on programming via the category to provide the regulate digital tools and graphical monitors (root locus, Bode plots, and Nyquist plot). This textbook was once constructed in cooperation with nationwide tools team of workers. desk of Contents: electric process Equations / Mechanical Translation structures / Mechanical Rotational platforms / Thermal structures and platforms illustration / features and kinds of suggestions keep watch over platforms / Root Locus / Frequency reaction research / balance and Margins / creation to LabVIEW / keep an eye on layout in LabVIEW / Simulation in LabVIEW / LabVIEW regulate layout and Simulation workout / Cardiac keep an eye on / Vestibular keep watch over procedure / Vestibulo-Ocular keep watch over process / Gait and Stance regulate approach / respiration keep an eye on procedure
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Additional info for Basic Feedback Controls in Biomedicine (Synthesis Lectures on Biomedical Engineering)
For simple systems that meet specifications, the task may be simple; however, if the system does not meet specifications, then it may be difficult to determine the solution. The difficulty may be in determining which or what physical parameters of the system should be changed to improve the response in order to meet the specifications. Design engineers would prefer to predict the system’s performance by any analysis method that does not require the actual solution of the differential equation. The analysis should indicate the manner in which the system must be adjusted or compensated to produce the desired performance characteristics.
5 TYPES OF FEEDBACK SYSTEMS Designation of the type of feedback system is based on the order of the exponents of s. For example, the general equation for a transfer function G(s) is as follows: G(s ) = K m b w s w + bw −1 s w − 1 + ⋅⋅⋅ + b 2 s 2 + b 1 s 1 + 1 s m (a n s n + a n −1 s n −1 + ⋅⋅⋅ + a 2 s 2 + a 1 s 1 + 1) where Km is the gain constant of G(s) and m is the type of transfer function. There are four types of feedback control systems [1–3]: 1. Type 0 system (m = 0; therefore, s0) has a constant actuating signal results in a constant value for the controlled variable (constant position).
Evaluating the static “step” error coefficient for a type 1 or type 2 system results in an infinite value for the step error coefficient for either system. The definition of the static “ramp” error coefficient for a ramp input r (t) or R1tu(t) is the ratio of the steady-state value of the derivative of the output (response), d/dt(c)ss to the steady-state actuating signal, e(t)ss. Then, for type 0 system, the ramp error coefficient is the limit of the derivative of the forward transfer function as s approaches 0, thus resulting in the ramp error coefficient equal to zero (0) as shown in the following equation.