By Noboru Motohashi
Heterocyclic chemistry is the largest department of chemistry masking two-thirds of the chemical literature and this ebook covers the new issues of frontier learn summarized by way of reputed scientists within the field.
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Additional info for Bioactive Heterocycles VI: Flavonoids and Anthocyanins in Plants, and Latest Bioactive Heterocycles I
The efﬁciency of resveratrol for protecting the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was higher than the efﬁciency of ﬂavonoids in copper-induced oxidation and lower in 2,2 -azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH, a radical initiator)-induced oxidation. The LDL receptor activity of resveratrol was evaluated by ﬂow cytometry. The incubation of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) with ﬂuorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled LDL oxidized for 16 h reduced signiﬁcantly the proportion of the ﬂuorescent cells from 97% to 4%.
Pycnogenol is a standardized extract composed of a mixture of ﬂavonoids, mainly composed of proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids. These components are highly bioavailable. Pycnogenol has anticardiovascular activities such as vasorelaxation, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, and enhancement of microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. The main mechanism of the induction of these biological effects by pycnogenol might depend on strong free radical-scavenging activity against both ROSs and RNSs.
These results suggest that pycnogenol could protect vascular endothelial cells from free radical oxidant injuries and also that pycnogenol might be useful for the prevention of disorders such as age-related diseases associated with diverse active oxidative damage . 7 macrophage like-cells grown on the ﬁlters and activated by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ . On the α-tocopherol levels in ECV 302 endothelial cells of the blood vessel linings, the RNS generated by activated macrophages or by the direct administration of peroxynitrite led to a signiﬁcant loss of α-tocopherol in endothelial cells.