By Michael Eisenbach
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Additional resources for Chemotaxis
Under starvation, where the ratio of PEP to pyruvate, and hence of phospho-EI to EI, is high, the cyclase is activated and synthesizes high levels of cAMP. As a direct consequence, expression of the genes included in the crpA modulon is high. 7 in Chapter 3) as well as an immediate decrease in intracellular cAMP levels. This is the first remarkable example of how the physiological state and, in particular, feast and famine conditions, modulate flagella synthesis, cell motility, and the chemosensory capacities of a cell.
Consequently, biotopes like marine beaches that are only accessible to organisms able to move rapidly hence and forth and in short intervalls, should not be accessible to slowly motile and immobile organims. Thus, growth of sulfide-oxidizing phototrophic bacteria in marine environments is determined by opposing gradients of light intensity and sulfide concentrations in the surrounding water. Green sulfide-oxidizers (Chlorobiaceae) are always found below purple bacteria (Chromatiaceae) due to their better light exploitation efficiency and higher sulfide tolerance [4,72].
After about 15 min, the majority dissipated rapidly but a clump of immobile spermatozoids remained at the center of attraction. At this stage, even newly hatched spermatozoids were no longer attracted. Immobilization was apparently due to paralysis of the long swinging flagellum while the ventral steering flagellum kept beating vigorously. Clumping was not seen after attraction to gamone-containing agar droplets. Based on these results, Sp. donnellii produces gamones which are concentrated near the egg cell in the archegonium and trigger chemotaxis in spermatozoids.