By J Shore
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Additional info for Colorants and Auxiliaries: Vol 2 Organic Chemistry and Application Properties
Thus, in the example quoted above of CI Acid Red 1 on nylon, sodium chloride has a stronger effect on decreasing dye adsorption than the more kosmotropic sodium sulphate. On this basis, Yang has introduced a modified Donnan model that quantitatively predicts the various effects of electrolytes on either decreasing or increasing dye adsorption. g. 1 Rather more complex compounds that are currently being researched are the bolaform electrolytes [2–4]. g. 1). Their interaction with sulphonated monoazo dyes in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as substrate has been studied in detail.
The disadvantages of hydrolysable esters have been their higher cost, a limited pH range and, where the dyebath is to be reused, the need for increasing quantities of ester to overcome the buffering effect caused by the accumulation of salts [7,16]. Interest in these systems has declined due to environmental pressures on the one hand and the increased availability and sophistication of automatic dosing and monitoring systems on the other. 6 The advantages of automatic metering and monitoring devices were well described by Mosimann  and have recently been re-emphasised .
E. Mr = 106–10 7) are useful as flocculating agents or migration inhibitors. Although these acrylic oligomers and polymers show little decomposition in effluent treatment, they pose no significant threat to the environment since they can be removed easily by adsorption on activated sludge or by precipitation as an insoluble calcium complex . Exhaustive tests have not revealed any adverse environmental influence. Their aquatic toxicity is negligible and toxicity to warm-blooded mammals is slight.