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By G. Sanford

Democratic executive has now been entrenched in Poland. An more and more major ecu actor, Poland provides challenging but in addition stimulating demanding situations to new NATO and ecu affiliates. This authoritative evaluate examines intensive the constitutional and governmental framework in Poland on the grounds that 1989 and its important political associations, mechanisms and actors. Sanford demonstrates how the governmental method advanced pragmatically through the Nineteen Nineties to deal with modernization and consolidated manageable self sustaining statehood consensually round Poland's hardy constitutional values.

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By G. Sanford

Democratic executive has now been entrenched in Poland. An more and more major ecu actor, Poland provides challenging but in addition stimulating demanding situations to new NATO and ecu affiliates. This authoritative evaluate examines intensive the constitutional and governmental framework in Poland on the grounds that 1989 and its important political associations, mechanisms and actors. Sanford demonstrates how the governmental method advanced pragmatically through the Nineteen Nineties to deal with modernization and consolidated manageable self sustaining statehood consensually round Poland's hardy constitutional values.

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Extra resources for Democratic Government in Poland: Constitutional Politics since 1989

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Stanisl⁄ aw Krukowski, Geneza konstytucji z 17 marca 1921r (Warsaw: Ludowa Spol⁄ dzielna Wydawnicza, 1977). Kallas, Historia ustroju Polski, pp. 307–8. For a discussion of the rival preliminary drafts and its final contents, see Leon Grosfeld and Henryk Zieli´nski (eds), Historia Polski, vol. IV, part 1 (1918–1926, Chs 1–13), (Warsaw: PWN, 1969), Ch. 12. For the constitutional and political debates, see Andrzej Ajnenkiel, Spór o model parlamentaryzmu polskiego do roku 1926 (Warsaw: KiW, 1972). See also Tomasz Nal⁄ ecz, ˛ Spór o ksztal⁄ t demokracji i parlamentaryzmu w Polsce w latach 1921–1926 (Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Prywatnej Wyzszej Szkol⁄ y Businessu i Administracji, 1994).

76 The fundamental democratic principles of the sovereignty of the nation, the division of powers and the guaranteeing of civic and individual rights were confirmed. 77 The Sejm controlled the government very closely through almost unchecked powers of appointment, censure and dismissal. Both the 444-strong Sejm and the 111-strong Senate were elected by direct and universal suffrage. The latter was clearly inferior although it could participate in legislation and could agree to a presidential request for the dissolution of the two parliamentary chambers.

37 The Constitution of Poland before the Partitions, in The Cambridge History of Poland, 1697–1935, op. , p. 49. 38 But see the balanced appraisal by Wojciech Kriegseisen, Sejmiki Rzeczypospolitej szlacheckiej w XVII i XVIII wieku (Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Sejmowe, 1991) which revises the Sejmiki’s negative popular stereotype. 39 Buell, op. , p. 48. ), The Polish Parliament at the Summit of its Development (Wrocl⁄ aw: Osolineum, 1985), pp. 13–20. 41 Henryk Olszewski, Sejm Rzeczypospolitej epoki oligarchii, 1562–1763 (Poznan ´: Wydawnictwo UAM, 1966).

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