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18) Now we ask: which is the most probable value for E A ? The statistical postulate seems to suggest that any value should be equally probable at equilibrium. On the other hand, since the number of microstates increases with energy, we should have the maximum possible energy on each side, in order to simultaneously maximise the entropy. 19) This clearly shows that the above conditions can be satisfied only if the energy is shared between A and B in a way proportional to the number of particles in each subsystem (actually, proportionally to the number of degrees of freedom of the particles in each subsystem, which is 3 × the number of particles, one for each cartesian coordinate).

As suggested by the Eq. 59) above, the large temperature difference between the Earth surface (280–300 K) and the Sun (5,800 K) is at the basis of any process of energy transformation on our planet (Fig. 3). The radiant energy is transported by electromagnetic radiation, with its combined oscillating electric and magnetic fields. The amount of energy contained in the electromagneticwave is directly proportional Fig. 3 Exchanges of radiation energy. The Sun irradiates ‘hot’ radiation, at a temperature of 5,800 K and short wavelength (visible and ultraviolet).

A sequence, a pattern, a bookshelf can be quickly seen to be ordered or disordered. Both order and disorder seem easy to recognise, when looking at an array of objects, or at your children’s room. However, the view of the contrast between order and disorder as just an attribute of the spatial organisation is somewhat limited. A spatially well-ordered crystalline lattice of magnetic atoms can turn out to be completely disordered, if we look at the values of magnetisation in that same crystal above some critical temperature.

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