By James Miskel
Hurricane Katrina is the most recent in a sequence of significant failures that weren't good controlled, however it isn't prone to be the final. classification four and class five hurricanes will, in keeping with so much predictions, turn into either extra widespread and extra extreme sooner or later as a result of worldwide warming and/or ordinary climate cycles. additionally, it's always acknowledged that one other terrorist assault at the usa is inevitable; that it's a query of while, no longer no matter if. upload to that the scare over a potential avian flu pandemic. hence, the USA should still count on that catastrophe response―to common and different forms of disasters―will remain of significant drawback to the yankee public and the policymakers and officers who care for catastrophe reaction and reduction, together with the military.
The U.S. catastrophe reduction software displays a simple department of accountability among federal, nation, and native governments that has generally stood the try out of time. on the federal point, a unmarried corporation, FEMA―now lower than the dept of native land Security―has been charged with the accountability for coordinating the actions of a number of the federal businesses that experience a task in catastrophe reduction. A profitable catastrophe reaction calls for 3 issues: well timed and potent coordination among kingdom and federal governments; potent coordination one of the federal businesses; and powerful coordination among and between kingdom and native govt organizations. Miskel, a former Deputy Assistant affiliate Director of FEMA, examines the results that operational mess ups after Hurricanes Agnes, Hugo, Andrew, and Katrina have had at the organizational layout and working rules of the catastrophe reaction approach software. He additionally discusses the effect of Sept. 11 and the evolving position of the army, and he identifies reforms that are supposed to be applied to enhance the nation's skill to reply within the future.
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Additional info for Disaster Response and Homeland Security: What Works, What Doesn't
Both storms were in 2004. Hurricane Hugo in 1989 cost slightly less than Charley and Ivan, but the disaster relief effort for Hugo was not a success—as will be discussed there were factors other than the absolute value of damage that seemed to have determined the different outcomes for Charley, Ivan, and Hugo. In addition to the sixty-plus billion dollar weather disasters since 1980 there have also been at least two earthquakes, one volcanic eruption, and two terrorist attacks that have generated costs of one billion or more.
4 The level of military support was almost as great after Hurricane Andrew in 1992. 5 To put these numbers in perspective, the combined total of active duty and National Guard troops involved in Katrina and Andrew was 68,000 and 30,000 respectively. S. troops are stationed in Korea, still one of the world’s hot spots, 7,000 troops are engaged in the peacekeeping operation in Kosovo and another 5,000 in Afghanistan. In other words, for a short time there were almost twice as many military personnel involved in Katrina relief than are in Korea, Kosovo, and Afghanistan combined.
The NOAA report sensibly includes the value of insured and uninsured losses. That is to say, it includes losses for which businesses and individuals received private compensation as well as losses that were offset by government disaster relief programs and losses that were simply absorbed by the affected businesses and families. This is an important point for two reasons. One is that it is a reminder that private sector insurance companies (like utility companies) play an important role in the disaster relief system.