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I also wish to thank the staff of the Libraries of \ the)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0363 Tw T* (University of Warwick, of the Royal Institute of International Affairs)Tj 0.2916 Tw T* (\(Chatham House\) and of the International Institute for Strategic)Tj 0.0655 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Studies \(IISS\). 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>> endobj 101 0 obj << /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Widths [250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 250 0 500 0 500 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 696 780 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 404 0 0 509 0 0 0 0 257 0 0 247 0 525 486 0 0 332 0 307 0 432 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 790] /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 169 /FontDescriptor 102 0 R /BaseFont /FmnpbgAGaramondPro-Regular >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Length 3620 >> stream q 1 0 0 1 -9.6377716 -24.3464661 cm 0 0 391 612 re W n q 0 612.009 390.996 -612 re W n 1 0 0 1 9.6377716 24.3464661 cm BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0058 Tc -0.0058 Tw 18 0 0 18 29.5433 517.4266 Tm [(Par)-8(t One)]TJ 0 Tw 0 -1.667 TD (Introduction)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0061 Tc -0.0061 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5433 367.4266 Tm (In September 1970 I was fortunate enough to be invited to the Twelfth)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0702 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Annual Conference of the Institute [now International Institute] for)Tj 0.0136 Tc -0.0136 Tw T* (Strategic Studies \(IISS\), held that year in Evian, France. Many strate\ gic)Tj 0.0099 Tc -0.0099 Tw T* (analysts of distinction were present and formal papers were offered on)Tj 0.0015 Tc -0.0015 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (the theme )Tj /T1_2 1 Tf (Europe and America in the 1970s.)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 208.4722 322.5756 Tm (1)Tj 0.0015 Tc -0.0015 Tw 9 0 0 9 214.4212 319.4266 Tm (Those I recall being present)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.3452 Tw -20.542 -1.333 Td (included Professor Klaus Knorr, Professor Albert Wohlstetter, US)Tj 0.0171 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Senator Charles Mathias, Dr. Theodor Sommer of )Tj /T1_2 1 Tf 24.157 0 Td (Die Zeit)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf (, M. Michel)Tj 0.014 Tc -0.014 Tw -24.157 -1.333 Td (Tatu of )Tj /T1_2 1 Tf (Le Monde)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 8.292 0 Td (and Professor \(now Sir\) Michael Howard \(who is one)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0856 Tw -8.292 -1.333 Td (of my former teachers and who had most kindly nominated me for)Tj 0.224 Tw T* (membership of the Institute a few years earlier\). In the company )Tj 0.0157 Tc -0.0157 Tw T* (I found at Evian I was thus very much a junior \223gure and was known,)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0457 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (if at all, for a recently-published work on diplomatic history,)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 296.9522 238.5755 Tm (2)Tj 0.017 Tc 9 0 0 9 303.5592 235.4265 Tm (rather)Tj 0.0126 Tc -0.0126 Tw -30.446 -1.333 Td (than for having achieved any distinction in strategic studies. So I was,\ )Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0893 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (I thought, expected to know my place. And on the whole I did not)Tj 0.01 Tc -0.01 Tw T* (misbehave. But the Conference coincided with the \223rst major interna-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1884 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (tional crisis involving terrorism and this made a deep and lasting)Tj 0.1059 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (impression on me. Just as in September 2001, several airliners were)Tj 0.045 Tw T* (almost simultaneously hijacked, though on this occasion bargaining)Tj 0.1255 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (rather than suicide missions was the objective the terrorists had in)Tj 0.1342 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (view. Three \(out of \223ve\) ended their journeys at Dawson\220s Field \ in)Tj -0.0091 Tw T* (Jordan, where 416 passengers were held hostage by the Popular Front)Tj 0.0262 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (for the Liberation of Palestine \(PFLP\). Various Western Governments)Tj -0.0123 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (were ordered to release Palestinian prisoners or face the possible mas-)Tj 0.1236 Tw T* (sacre of the hostages. This crisis was still unresolved when the IISS)Tj 0.2135 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Conference ended on 13 September; but already negotiations had)Tj 0.0147 Tc -0.0147 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (begun and the prospect of a PFLP triumph was in the air. It seemed to)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0691 Tw T* (me, with all the assurance of youth, that this was a development of)Tj 0.0088 Tc -0.0088 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (stupendous importance that absolutely cried out to be considered by a)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 177.2472 27.9915 Tm (1)Tj ET Q Q BT 0.5 g /T1_3 9 Tf 27.483 13.444 Td (D. Carlton, )Tj /T1_4 9 Tf 1 0 0 1 70.4758 13.4435 Tm (The West\222s Road to 9/11)Tj /T1_3 9 Tf -42.993 -10 Td (\251 David Carlton 2005)Tj ET endstream endobj 105 0 obj << /Width 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 72 /Length 634 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HV0 08;$:)_r%H f@ G0mi1<`xgak[_ѐȏVA^qȮRnϖ;6!36,Blz&O;H\?$bo#6#1wquQi(O +4 '.WH^S4c  X-,vr]Z$ ZV8!n7? Tˇ44ڠ+É4 Ր+7sb޾8䚼Qxrlo{(+I&s; SRUb Lg=0֕Čӕ%YCCo8}SDoxسYF_1YKԄ^C9,k2gG2cJɆئ"-TϐF:j2NџH]"gk>Z r}èTi1~_C/J1'˘҃Lh:0J#~bK5U H,:NgM]V@ z!χ>ѷ+"1ԭuI"Yu%ZKo|Gܬ ]w%vu}wBpTY{ C F²[zo), endstream endobj 97 0 obj << /LastModified (D:20060508093242) /Resources << /Font << /T1_2 29 0 R /T1_1 15 0 R /T1_0 38 0 R /T1_4 98 0 R /T1_3 101 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /Contents 104 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 105 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /CropBox [0.0000305176 0.0000305176 357.166 578.268] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Length 4490 >> stream q 1 0 0 1 -22.6771698 -28.3464661 cm 0 0 391 612 re W n q 0 612.009 390.996 -612 re W n 1 0 0 1 22.6771698 28.3464661 cm BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0171 Tc -0.0036 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5038 520.0396 Tm (gathering of some of the world\220s leading strategic analysts. But to m\ y)Tj 0.0033 Tc -0.0033 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (surprise, which I did not entirely conceal, the Conference\220s agenda w\ as)Tj 0.0105 Tc -0.0105 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (not modi\223ed and hence no formal discussion of the hostage crisis and)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (appropriate governmental responses took place.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0057 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (Of course on the social fringes of the Conference the topic was not)Tj 0.1406 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (ignored and I fear that I may have annoyed some of my elders by)Tj 0.0937 Tw T* (insisting privately that a resolute stand should be taken against the)Tj 0.0169 Tc -0.0169 Tw T* (hijackers, no matter what the cost in passenger lives. And, I hasten to)Tj 0.0123 Tc -0.0123 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (add, I would also have taken this line if the hijackers had been Israeli\ s)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0525 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (\(or indeed had had any other ethnic or religious identity\). For I had)Tj -0.0171 Tw T* (not then been converted to the merits of appeasement in general and)Tj -0.0004 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (of its supposedly most outrageous practitioner \205 something that hap-)Tj 0.1573 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (pened to me during the next decade when I wrote a biography of)Tj 0.0687 Tw T* (Anthony Eden and found myself almost invariably won over by the)Tj 0.0131 Tc -0.0131 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (cogent arguments, recorded in letters, diaries and government papers,)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0674 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (of Neville Chamberlain.)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 134.8818 343.1896 Tm (3)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0674 Tw 9 0 0 9 140.5128 340.0395 Tm (At all events, I found few in Evian in 1970)Tj 0.0371 Tw -12.334 -1.333 Td (who were anxious to discuss the hostage crisis in a formal session or)Tj 0.1901 Tw T* (who would agree privately that to negotiate a deal with the PFLP)Tj 0.0625 Tw T* (would lead to long-run catastrophe at least for my generation if not)Tj 0.1412 Tw T* (theirs. Most of those with whom I spoke were clearly unimpressed )Tj 0.2399 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (by tired analogies with Munich and echoes from me of Winston)Tj 0.0256 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Churchill\220s hyperbole about bitter cups being proffered to us year by\ )Tj 0.0009 Tc 0 Tw T* (year.)Tj 0 Tc 5.85 0 0 5.85 49.6328 259.1895 Tm (4)Tj 0.0009 Tc -0.0009 Tw 9 0 0 9 55.5788 256.0395 Tm (I recall being asked by a distinguished American whether I would)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0863 Tw -2.897 -1.333 Td (really allow hundreds of passengers to be slaughtered for a point of)Tj 0.0096 Tc -0.0096 Tw T* (principle. What if, for example, a member of my own family had been)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1371 Tw T* (aboard one of the airliners? What decision, he asked, would I take)Tj 0.0067 Tw T* (then? My reply was that in such a case the decision ought not to rest)Tj 0.0061 Tc -0.0061 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (with me. He clearly thought that what he saw as my youthful ruthless-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0894 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (ness and what I saw as my clarity of mind did me little credit. And )Tj 0.0124 Tc -0.0124 Tw T* (I subsequently moved some way to sharing his point of view. For I see)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (that as early as 1979 I wrote:)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1235 Tw 1.333 -2.667 Td (The doctrine that no state should ever negotiate with a substate)Tj 0.0389 Tw T* (actor\203has indeed a majestic simplicity and, if it had been consis-)Tj 0.0034 Tc -0.0034 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (tently applied, might have prevented contemporary urban terrorism)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (becoming such a vogue. )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 11.613 0 Td [(But it is a)-287(counsel of perfection)]TJ /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw 13.427 0 Td (.)Tj 5.85 0 0 5.85 269.4978 103.1895 Tm (5)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0964 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5038 76.0395 Tm (Yet the events of 11 September 2001 \(9/11\) have led me to wonder)Tj 0.0017 Tc -0.0017 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (whether, after all, my youthful instincts in 1970 were sounder than my)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (\217mature\220 realism of a decade later.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0672 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (What I have never doubted since 1970, however, is that terrorism)Tj 0.0119 Tc -0.0119 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (has the potential in the longer run to cause massive problems for gov-)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 29.5038 544.7745 Tm (2)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 1.446 0 Td (The West\220s Road to 9/11)Tj ET Q Q endstream endobj 109 0 obj << /Width 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 72 /Length 804 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HVA0 aa0t$+ΌDB4}]yFcZ/yx=0P #HF NCY^g61~'ԸG(>u*Xk.e|<ȱ=DUX-7z+1p be qv>Xy b&BX"~Pdt4Rpݞ!̇SK1*.jRǒ+@A z=;WXdRVIRR&v&VITn@2̺!i7|hTyiܵƞ` "B"0w2#>_|bo#ů-x.~  Ȃ߭?>%xNMHU<}†0+Qȼ8*g^םGǐ P&6oUyJU!>DVE]|jX"WQ*1)ιmBF' "ڬePGu2} ?]ij6Iz87ox*qzeyX#[`ؼZRQ ?,/*eR}uui(Vo|16aWR:ƼJAգ@c=w2> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /Contents 108 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 109 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /CropBox [0.0000305176 0.0000305176 357.166 578.268] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Length 4686 >> stream q 1 0 0 1 -9.6377716 -28.3464661 cm 0 0 391 612 re W n q 0 612.009 390.996 -612 re W n 1 0 0 1 9.6377716 28.3464661 cm BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0171 Tc 0.2217 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5433 520.0396 Tm (ernments everywhere and that luminaries in the \223eld of strategic)Tj 0.0035 Tc -0.0035 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (studies could not therefore safely treat it as of little central importa\ nce.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.2745 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (So I was much grati\223ed when I discovered that the IISS Annual)Tj 0.0131 Tc -0.0131 Tw T* (Conference of 2001 had been disrupted by terrorism in a way that the)Tj 0.0133 Tc -0.0133 Tw T* (one of 1970 had not been. For by chance the 2001 Conference, which )Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0136 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (I regret to say that I myself did not seek to attend, met in Switzerland\ )Tj 0.0032 Tc -0.0032 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (between 12 and 15 September. On this occasion the entire pre-planned)Tj 0.0014 Tc -0.0014 Tw T* (agenda was scrapped and the 200 distinguished participants apparently)Tj 0.0106 Tc -0.0106 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (did little else but discuss terrorism throughout the entire Conference.)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 326.1862 427.1896 Tm (6)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5433 412.0395 Tm (I would have been satis\223ed with half a day back in 1970.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0834 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (The IISS did not of course entirely ignore terrorism between 1970)Tj 0.1362 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (and 2001. But, for example, not a single one of its more than 150)Tj 0.1559 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (excellent Adelphi Papers published during this period was devoted )Tj 0.0171 Tw T* (to terrorism as a global phenomenon \205 though inevitably some dealt)Tj 0.098 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (with particular insurgencies as they affected individual countries or)Tj 0.0095 Tc -0.0095 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (regions. And at least until the mid-1990s much the same could be said)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.051 Tw T* (of issues of )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tw (Survival)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.051 Tw (, its quarterly journal. The IISS, in short, concen-)Tj 0.1044 Tw -0 -1.333 Td (trated on other issues, many of them of particular interest to tradi-)Tj 0.0455 Tw T* (tional strategic and military planners in NATO Governments, whose)Tj 0.2204 Tw T* (sympathisers among academics and opinion-formers are of course)Tj 0.0065 Tc -0.0065 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (rather well represented in the IISS membership.)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 231.2322 283.1895 Tm (7)Tj 0.0065 Tc -0.0065 Tw 9 0 0 9 237.2112 280.0395 Tm (It seems that to many)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0295 Tw -23.074 -1.333 Td (of these people the subject of terrorism as a broad theme was simply)Tj 0.0239 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (uncongenial. One good reason may have been that no two informed)Tj 0.0087 Tc -0.0087 Tw T* (people seemed able to agree about how to de\223ne it. Another may have)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0059 Tw T* (been that some commentators already active in the \223eld were unable)Tj -0.0082 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (to resist the temptation to predict, with perhaps more relish than did)Tj 0.0061 Tc -0.0061 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (them credit, imminent catastrophe \205 analogous to the apocalyptic way)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0022 Tw T* (some people had had of looking at the invention of nuclear weapons)Tj 0.0071 Tc -0.0071 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (that had led Alastair Buchan, Michael Howard and others to found the)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1863 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (IISS in 1958 as a forum for discussing the implications in a more)Tj 0.0042 Tc -0.0042 Tw T* (nuanced and level-headed fashion. Again, many strategic thinkers may)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0719 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (\223nd it uncongenial to contemplate the problems posed by terrorists)Tj 0.0097 Tc -0.0097 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (who rely in urban environments on the waging of asymmetric warfare)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1034 Tw T* (in its most extreme form. In short, those who break all the normal)Tj 0.0417 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (rules may simply irritate and repel those analysts who hitherto have)Tj 0.0642 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (been primarily concerned with war, limited and unlimited, between)Tj -0.0019 Tw T* (major powers and, perhaps at the margins, with sub-state rural insur-)Tj 0.1247 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (gencies and with appropriate counterinsurgency responses. Howard)Tj 0.0024 Tc -0.0024 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (himself, for many years the IISS\220s President, may provide an interest\ ing)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0511 Tw T* (example of such fastidiousness. He has of course written extensively)Tj 0.0082 Tc -0.0082 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (and with great distinction on many subjects related to military history)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0102 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (and contemporary strategic studies. But, at least prior to 9/11, terror-\ )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 275.0732 544.7745 Tm (Introduction)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 6.235 0 Td (3)Tj ET Q Q endstream endobj 113 0 obj << /Width 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 72 /Length 822 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HVˁ@ b\ bgIX}G>0xdY1b n<8> 3o~pvcOeXBk[}z3$}L8ueg':u؀{fgL=[p֕9u_ݚ//ENm0:\`['ü1fUnfWOEF&B8[b9bl0kwy1ycr\/S^c^kzB5!EX3ba ޥ:r1 2PۊUd˃޴"XV1rnPq%n~Q̀H}?_a:CX1TѨ& `Ҷnԯ^uYqA|jܭ+g>ZwbD endstream endobj 111 0 obj << /LastModified (D:20060508093242) /Resources << /Font << /T1_1 29 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /Contents 112 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 113 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /CropBox [0.0000305176 0.0000305176 357.166 578.268] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Length 4429 >> stream q 1 0 0 1 -22.6771698 -28.3464661 cm 0 0 391 612 re W n q 0 612.009 390.996 -612 re W n 1 0 0 1 22.6771698 28.3464661 cm BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0113 Tc -0.0113 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5038 520.0396 Tm (ism as a highly effective and often transnational \217weapon of the weak\ \220)Tj 0.0137 Tc -0.0137 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (was evidently not something he found it rewarding to contemplate as)Tj 0.0022 Tc -0.0022 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (a possible sub-discipline of international relations. One of his few com\ -)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (ments on the subject was in a book review:)Tj 0.0021 Tc -0.0021 Tw 1.333 -2.667 Td ([Terrorism is a] huge and ill-de\223ned subject [that] has probably been\ )Tj 0.0118 Tc -0.0118 Tw T* (responsible for more incompetent and unnecessary books than any)Tj 0.0039 Tc -0.0039 Tw T* (other outside the \223eld of sociology. It attracts phonies and amateurs\ )Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (as a candle attracts moths.)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 153.3478 427.1896 Tm (8)Tj 0.0036 Tc -0.0036 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5038 400.0395 Tm (Phonies and amateurs do indeed \223gure in a considerable part of the li\ t-)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0089 Tw T* (erature on terrorism. But could that in part be due to the fact that for\ )Tj 0.1123 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (so long not only the IISS but also, for example, the US Council on)Tj 0.1089 Tw T* (Foreign Relations, the United Kingdom\220s Royal Institute of Interna-)Tj 0.0115 Tc -0.0115 Tw T* (tional Affairs \(Chatham House\) and most of the leading Western jour-)Tj 0.0095 Tc -0.0095 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (nals in the international relations \223eld showed little sustained inte\ rest)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0381 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (in \223lling the gap into which charlatans cheerfully stepped? But 9/11)Tj -0.0005 Tw T* (has changed all that. For example, the IISS soon designated Jonathan)Tj 0.2696 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Stevenson as Senior Fellow for Counter Terrorism; while Howard)Tj 0.0103 Tc -0.0103 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (himself, late in his life, has sprung vigorously into action on terroris\ m)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0529 Tw T* (and its impact, writing, with his usual clarity, in )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 24.107 0 Td (Foreign Affairs)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 306.5889 283.1895 Tm (9)Tj 0.017 Tc 9 0 0 9 313.2598 280.0395 Tm (and)Tj 0.0879 Tw -31.528 -1.333 Td (even in a variety of newspapers. And of course every other relevant)Tj 0.0596 Tw T* (institute and journal has also responded in one way or another. But)Tj 0.1084 Tw T* (will future historians wonder why they appear for the most part to)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (have been so far behind rather than ahead of developments?)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0679 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (Here again Howard\220s line may be illuminating. For his reaction to)Tj 0.0427 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (9/11 was to acknowledge its great importance in that it changed the)Tj 0.0122 Tc -0.0122 Tw T* (United States irrevocably but to deny that it was remotely foreseeable:)Tj 0.001 Tc -0.001 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (\217The cause of all the trouble is of course 9/11 \205 that diabolical \ \224uke, the)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1016 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (odds against the success of which were almost astronomical, which)Tj 0.0371 Tw T* (transformed the mindset of the American people, much as had Pearl)Tj -0.0002 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Harbor 60 years earlier.\220)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 132.9678 151.1895 Tm (10)Tj -0.0002 Tw 9 0 0 9 141.6628 148.0395 Tm (From this it would appear to follow that he)Tj 0.0144 Tw -12.462 -1.333 Td (had not been at all shaken by the fact that in 1970 four airliners had)Tj 0.1568 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (been hijacked simultaneously; by the earlier attempt to topple the)Tj 0.0117 Tc -0.0117 Tw T* (Twin Towers in 1993; by the sarin attack on the Tokyo subway system)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.002 Tw T* (in 1995; and by the bombing in Oklahoma City, also in 1995. In this)Tj 0.2437 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (sense Howard may resemble the many people in 1914 who were)Tj 0.2126 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (stunned by Europe\220s tumble into all-out war and who afterwards,)Tj 0.0147 Tw T* (ignoring the earlier crises relating, for example, to Bosnia \(1908\) an\ d)Tj 0.0079 Tc -0.0079 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Agadir \(1911\), offered such explanations as: \217\203if only Franz Fer\ dinand)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0013 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (had taken a slightly different route through the streets of Sarajevo all\ )Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 29.5038 544.7745 Tm (4)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 1.446 0 Td (The West\220s Road to 9/11)Tj ET Q Q endstream endobj 117 0 obj << /Width 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 72 /Length 757 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HVK@ NaÐ3^0:$,y`hJ?ab6x:}lKe&Haqo܉ Y^_h)cҘCu y*:Qq>urh +0Yd鿎 \E|-# "9$k0m;"Fq/ZdQڎM6O;PE3Տ|K;G@V82خ?}cD5 )ś.B9`S#,iSz^)g 8a׎_z˰Ad688^Vf1Jq_XΒ`5aR * H8=~)\_QmʏYɵ 8(l!0:飴BlG(>z9 ^)Gtt;DZFOB]~/F/,-` ԐE%%F RRa9lHP4cHox1/=PX[Ӡ4lI4:\AdJ _/\?tVёH)e8n J3kk ϣ]z3L:A|搈e.nO > /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /Contents 116 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 117 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /CropBox [0.0000305176 0.0000305176 357.166 578.268] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] >> endobj 120 0 obj << /Length 4664 >> stream q 1 0 0 1 -9.6377716 -28.3464661 cm 0 0 391 612 re W n q 0 612.009 390.996 -612 re W n 1 0 0 1 9.6377716 28.3464661 cm BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0019 Tc -0.0019 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5433 520.0396 Tm (would have been well\220. It is also possible, however, that they were r\ ight)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0881 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (to focus only on the Archduke\220s assassination; or, alternatively that\ )Tj 0.065 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (A. J. P. Taylor\220s later similarly reductionist line was correct when \ he)Tj 0.0323 Tw T* (claimed that Russian railway timetables drove a fatal mobilisation of)Tj 0.0193 Tw T* (the Great Powers that would otherwise not have occurred. Given the)Tj 0.0666 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (line I took in 1970, I myself am naturally now reluctant to embrace)Tj 0.0147 Tc -0.0147 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (reductionism with respect to 9/11. All the same, in seeing no \217Gather\ -)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0222 Tw T* (ing Storm\220 concerning terrorism, Howard may actually have been on)Tj 0.0481 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (sounder ground than any alarmists on the basis of such sketchy evi-)Tj 0.2441 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (dence as was then available. For those who forecast outlandishly )Tj 0.0121 Tc -0.0121 Tw T* (apocalyptic events are rarely vindicated; and when they are, they may)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.2874 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (indeed be merely bene\223ciaries of a \224uke. Certainly historians of )Tj 0.0133 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (the future will need to re\224ect on this perspective before condemning)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (institutes like the IISS for decades of supposed myopia.)Tj 0.017 Tc -0.017 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (But even if the verdict on reductionism with respect to 9/11 should)Tj 0.0156 Tc -0.0156 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (turn out to be generally negative, I myself am actually in a weak posi-)Tj 0.0048 Tc -0.0048 Tw T* (tion to criticise the Western World\220s strategic studies and internati\ onal)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0624 Tw T* (affairs \217establishment\220 for its long neglect of terrorism. For alt\ hough )Tj 0.0067 Tc -0.0067 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (I may claim to have been prescient in 1970 in grasping how important)Tj 0.0021 Tc -0.0021 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (the subject could become, I then did not devote as much of my time to)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0441 Tw T* (it over the next three decades as I had once thought it deserved and)Tj 0.1646 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (thus threw away any chance I had to carve out a major niche for)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (myself in this area before 9/11.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0637 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (I did not, however, entirely forget about terrorism during the \223rst)Tj 0.0431 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (decade after Dawson\220 Field. For example, I served as Associate Editor\ )Tj 0.0047 Tc 0 Tw T* (of)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0048 Tc -0.0048 Tw 1.235 0 Td [(Terrorism: An International)-287(Journal)]TJ /T1_0 1 Tf 15.827 0 Td (between 1977 and 1980. I was also)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.061 Tw -17.063 -1.333 Td (partly instrumental in launching two international conferences that)Tj -0.0147 Tw T* (dealt with terrorism held in Italy in 1974 and 1978. The host on each)Tj -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (occasion was the International School on Disarmament and Research)Tj -0.0097 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (on Con\224icts \(ISODARCO\), whose Director, Carlo Schaerf, edited with)Tj -0.0154 Tw T* (me two resulting volumes which re\224ected the diversity of opinion on)Tj 0.0073 Tc -0.0073 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (the subject already emerging among academic analysts.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 265.2272 151.1895 Tm (11)Tj -0.0073 Tw 9 0 0 9 274.6123 148.0395 Tm (And I helped)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw -27.23 -1.333 Td (to organise two academic conferences on the subject held in London in)Tj 0.0029 Tc -0.0029 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (1976 and 1977. The upshot was the publication in 1979 of a book enti-)Tj 0.0033 Tc 0 Tw T* (tled)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0034 Tc -0.0034 Tw 2.079 0 Td (Terrorism: Theory and Practice)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0033 Tc -0.0033 Tw 13.393 0 Td (. My co-editors were Yonah Alexander)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1396 Tw -15.472 -1.333 Td (and Paul Wilkinson, who were both already on their way to being)Tj -0.0032 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (accepted as pre-eminent authorities on terrorism in the United States)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (and the United Kingdom respectively.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 190.7392 79.1895 Tm (12)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0691 Tw 9 0 0 9 38.5432 64.0395 Tm (To this latter collection, moreover, I contributed an essay entitled)Tj 0.0019 Tc -0.0019 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (\217The Future of Political Substate Violence\220, an attempt to ask whe\ re this)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.4163 Tw T* (phenomenon was heading in what remained of the Twentieth)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 275.0732 544.7745 Tm (Introduction)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 6.235 0 Td (5)Tj ET Q Q endstream endobj 121 0 obj << /Width 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 72 /Length 764 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HV0 08;ĕ:G9%HAѢ~,OoqY ۚYD`,0f_DȠ9f @n9$4@U. $u L#y1_v"DAĨ'y_m #8j<,8Ɗw"0N&ޏh#T+#dӡF:AV5 9[2=ȧS˅WG:нҩٷc1c\"5dҩDj9bLz6/%,<օO [)@: qwֲj2Uяq\Iµ΢ [ab6CQAuqb0X/Qka?TKa@vD‡&* QX7]Z E|Pa~2?vkZ#Yk5$tkj]<6:o<{,ڣlʏe>CN17^_̧'M=3ҥ'h뒿*YcP*AuTedǕ|\03LqWl'%4xpmP.D7?ܸC >9;?ЦتGQ|<'r p+N/DO=^A'_xJathݜ"'ʹp5ttsbSAJ7ιzv/ϨVxS] \_q^Morty?, endstream endobj 119 0 obj << /LastModified (D:20060508093242) /Resources << /Font << /T1_1 29 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /Contents 120 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 121 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /CropBox [0.0000305176 0.0000305176 357.166 578.268] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] >> endobj 124 0 obj << /Length 4437 >> stream q 1 0 0 1 -22.6771698 -28.3464661 cm 0 0 391 612 re W n q 0 612.009 390.996 -612 re W n 1 0 0 1 22.6771698 28.3464661 cm BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0101 Tc -0.0101 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5038 520.0396 Tm (Century. On revisiting it, I am struck as much by how myopic I was as)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1165 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (by some examples of my having discerned trends correctly. For ex-)Tj 0.0015 Tc -0.0015 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (ample, I did not anticipate the emergence of large numbers of terrorists\ )Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0926 Tw T* (willing to commit suicide \205 a development that has greatly compli-)Tj 0.0112 Tc -0.0112 Tw T* (cated the task of counter-terrorist forces. Nor did I foresee the collap\ se)Tj 0.0123 Tc -0.0123 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (of the Warsaw Pact or the dissolution and fragmentation of the Soviet)Tj 0.0066 Tc -0.0066 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Union. This meant that I took it as given that the international system)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1177 Tw T* (would retain strong bipolar features that would militate against in-)Tj 0.1335 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (creasing cooperation among sovereign states against terrorism \205 an)Tj 0.013 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (assumption that proved broadly correct for the 1980s but not for the)Tj 0.0979 Tw T* (years that have followed. I also greatly underrated the potential for)Tj 0.0127 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (what we now call \217peace processes\220. I contended \217that it is imp\ ossible)Tj -0.0042 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (for states, particularly in the post-colonial era, to pursue policies th\ at)Tj 0.021 Tw T* (will, except in rare instances, remove many of the grievances, real or)Tj 0.0528 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (imagined, that motivate terrorists\220. Exceptions that I envisaged were\ )Tj 0.0052 Tc -0.0052 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (limited to developed states, for example by governments using readily-)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0164 Tw T* (available funds to improve conditions in Higher Education in Italy or)Tj 0.0053 Tc -0.0053 Tw T* (West Germany as a means of reducing the appeal of left-wing ideologi-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1027 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (cal terrorists lacking mass support. But peace processes in Northern)Tj 0.0159 Tc -0.0159 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Ireland and Sri Lanka have also had some impact, at least temporarily)Tj 0.0014 Tc -0.0014 Tw T* (and maybe permanently, on insurgencies based on identity rather than)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1031 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (ideology. And the peaceful handover of South Africa to the African)Tj 0.1503 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (National Congress \(ANC\) constituted an unambiguous triumph for)Tj 0.027 Tw T* (negotiations between a ruling elite and a formidably strong group of)Tj 0.0019 Tc -0.0019 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (former terrorists. Admittedly, the Palestinian-Israeli con\224ict looks \ more)Tj 0.0116 Tc -0.0116 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (intractable. But even in this case a peace process of a kind \224ickers \ into)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (life from time to time.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0003 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (On the other hand, some of my other predictions were not so wide)Tj 0.0066 Tc -0.0066 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (of the mark. In particular, I saw no likelihood that terrorism in genera\ l)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.2375 Tw T* (would diminish in importance. As I wrote: \217\203contrary to George)Tj 0.3647 Tw T* (Orwell\220s expectations, many states, even those of the advanced)Tj 0.0045 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Marxist-Leninist variety, are simply not proving able to maintain the)Tj 0.0095 Tc -0.0095 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (degree of physical control over potentially violent dissenters, let alon\ e)Tj 0.0008 Tc -0.0008 Tw T* (exercise the total \215thought control\216 on the scale necessary to gua\ rantee)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0998 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (that the threat of terrorism will fade away.\220 At the same time I was)Tj 0.0162 Tc -0.0162 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (sceptical about the prospect of terrorists at any early date engaging in\ )Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1193 Tw T* (apocalyptic mass slaughter. \217We may indeed,\220 I wrote, \217enter a \ new)Tj 0.0151 Tc -0.0151 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Dark Age. But so far this seems to be an extremely remote possibility.\220\ )Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0986 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (And I forecast that \217there will be many more nuclear-weapon states)Tj 0.1318 Tw T* (before a substate actor joins the club\220. In the longer run, however, \ )Tj 0.124 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (I saw growing vulnerabilities for the sovereign state, not least as \217\ a)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 29.5038 544.7745 Tm (6)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 1.446 0 Td (The West\220s Road to 9/11)Tj ET Q Q endstream endobj 125 0 obj << /Width 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 72 /Length 795 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HVK0 a0|v>Lan$١nQY_26?<7t{y ,m07!mIw\ꃷmqLǡƩA] TTt9㌺^&h ^RD>3bH8L hw$-'/?CxYwWyj<8/_~ >m* oD$̀> 1v{ZWKN|kԻ&*(P~BAy8 ?h=!G5Ώ$7f[W(5x.uY>Q5VA^?Ievj$iSˉ! fA=E/z-=fiK5pȾM=,mF K^Jh]oЅIڱFؑx> %8$r6 y-' ( `cQ{xgŽT3F\뼆"B+ CDY?~3hf ܮtɽjL h?zvSS9ϵٸ:P2aJQ+'9k+MI# Ίr37M{=TTr=)Pu9 W mx)+RHkW\Ju~%Zln[Ncpu>룪B-a=f] }]21sCmV }rYh ^S FUe]͕3H:)kkaN  endstream endobj 123 0 obj << /LastModified (D:20060508093242) /Resources << /Font << /T1_1 29 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /Contents 124 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 125 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /CropBox [0.0000305176 0.0000305176 357.166 578.268] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] >> endobj 128 0 obj << /Length 4275 >> stream q 1 0 0 1 -9.6377716 -28.3464661 cm 0 0 391 612 re W n q 0 612.009 390.996 -612 re W n 1 0 0 1 9.6377716 28.3464661 cm BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0082 Tc -0.0082 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5433 520.0396 Tm (result of the growing use of computers\220. And when I asked myself back\ )Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0244 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (in 1979 whether \217the terrorist scene will look much the same at, say,\ )Tj 0.0153 Tc -0.0153 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (the turn of the century as it does now\220, I judged that \217no such co\ nclu-)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (sion can be safely drawn\220. I contended:)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0121 Tw 1.333 -2.667 Td (\203there is likely\203to be a gradual, largely unplanned evolution in a\ )Tj 0.0011 Tw T* (direction that will make terrorism a problem of increasing serious-)Tj 0.0127 Tc -0.0127 Tw T* (ness to governments\203.First, the rapid evolution of technology and)Tj 0.0047 Tc -0.0047 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (the increasing availability of sophisticated weaponry may put temp-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1287 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (tation in the way of terrorist movements that might never have)Tj 0.0139 Tc -0.0139 Tw T* (consciously gone out of their way to escalate the levels of violence.)Tj 0.0093 Tc -0.0093 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Secondly, once a particular inhibition has gone, it will not be easily)Tj 0.0056 Tc 0 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (restored.)Tj 5.85 0 0 5.85 78.1752 379.1896 Tm (13)Tj 0.0079 Tc -0.0079 Tw 9 0 0 9 38.5432 352.0395 Tm (Although I wrote little else about terrorism after 1979, I nevertheless)Tj 0.0062 Tc -0.0062 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (kept in touch with the relevant, rather modest academic scene. During)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.099 Tw T* (the 1980s, moreover, I was beginning to ask why so few Americans)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw T* (acknowledged that George Washington could be considered to be a ter-)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.3508 Tw T* (rorist; and why in Central America regimes in El Salvador and)Tj 0.0127 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Guatemala were held by supporters of President Ronald Reagan to be)Tj 0.002 Tc -0.002 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (victims of terrorism while Nicaragua was held by the same people to be)Tj 0.0074 Tc -0.0074 Tw T* (wickedly resisting those noble freedom \223ghters, the Contras. I did no\ t,)Tj 0.0128 Tc -0.0128 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (on the other hand, throw my lot in either with, say, the radical Noam)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0315 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Chomsky, whose sympathies in Central America seemed to me to be)Tj 0.0758 Tw T* (the exact reverse of the Reaganites. Possibly I had reached the stage)Tj 0.0251 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (when I was bored by the predictable and by all those who seemed to)Tj 0.1753 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (me to embrace double standards in using the labels terrorism and )Tj 0.0052 Tc -0.0052 Tw T* (terrorist. In addition, I had also become impatient with those who pre-)Tj 0.0073 Tc -0.0075 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (dicted the )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tw (imminent)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0073 Tw 9.586 0 Td (emergence of catastrophic terrorism involving, for)Tj 0.0014 Tc -0.0014 Tw -9.586 -1.333 Td (example, so-called Weapons of Mass Destruction \(WMD\). And it was in)Tj 0.0082 Tc -0.0082 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (that spirit that at the University of Warwick during the 1990s I offered\ )Tj 0.0038 Tc -0.0038 Tw T* (a course, initially available to both graduates and undergraduates, enti\ -)Tj 0.0031 Tc -0.0031 Tw 0 -1.333 TD [(tled \217Terrorism: The Growth of Politically-motivated)-287(Sub-state Violence)]TJ 0.0171 Tc 0.1101 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (since 1945\220. But still I had no plans to write anything of substance)Tj 0.0072 Tc -0.0072 Tw T* (about terrorism. Then came 9/11, which coincided with the beginning)Tj 0.0125 Tc -0.0125 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (of a year of sabbatical leave granted by my University chiefs. So at las\ t )Tj 0.0148 Tc -0.0148 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (I was stimulated to concentrate my research time on the subject I had)Tj 0.0061 Tc -0.0061 Tw T* (been following, with inexcusable \223tfulness, since the days of Dawson\220\ s)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Field. This book is the result.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0626 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (Mine is of course not the only work to explore the background to)Tj 0.0873 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (9/11. But most others focus quite narrowly on al-Qaeda and on the)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 275.0732 544.7745 Tm (Introduction)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 6.235 0 Td (7)Tj ET Q Q endstream endobj 129 0 obj << /Width 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 72 /Length 760 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HV+! n.fn.&7϶ ے ,-[@M 30G N#,H3\ei/_dtln޺X"Z5"`h5?#lO20ithy%Y 04ai룥wC<0nж8haк|Y=kQM42h醰H'rm\H=2z*;FN4X !d-sC.oI5'Ʋ"ʕ܅'._Db qނ4X4Wy(͍4~ K@bnKp_~e͹fԍcr(Z7WSw&5].\J"M#m¥Է=sAֹM8&6uyaC ]jbg Lx( ( ?dUV''=٨Q^9X|\]&0bDR: ,zIU1.QZ\`8&> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /Contents 128 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 129 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /CropBox [0.0000305176 0.0000305176 357.166 578.268] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] >> endobj 132 0 obj << /Length 4917 >> stream q 1 0 0 1 -22.6771698 -28.3464661 cm 0 0 391 612 re W n q 0 612.009 390.996 -612 re W n 1 0 0 1 22.6771698 28.3464661 cm BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0171 Tc 0.0909 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5038 520.0396 Tm (degree to which the Administrations of Bill Clinton and George W.)Tj -0.0072 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Bush could be or could not be justly criticised for failing to take step\ s)Tj 0.0134 Tc -0.0134 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (to prevent it from perpetrating 9/11. This approach seems to me to be)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0162 Tw T* (far too circumscribed. Consider, for example, the celebrated )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 29.327 0 Td (Report of)Tj 0.0134 Tc -0.0134 Tw -29.327 -1.333 Td [(the National Commission on Terrorist)-287(Attacks Upon the United States)]TJ /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tw 31.155 0 Td (pub-)Tj 0.0025 Tc -0.0025 Tw -31.155 -1.333 Td (lished in July 2004.)Tj 0.0027 Tc 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 111.1048 463.1896 Tm (14)Tj 0.0026 Tc -0.0026 Tw 9 0 0 9 120.4348 460.0395 Tm (The work of a bipartisan panel of ten experienced)Tj 0.0131 Tc -0.0131 Tw -10.103 -1.333 Td (American politicians who had taken evidence from 1,200 witnesses in)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1307 Tw T* (ten countries and had access to 2.5 million pages of documents, it)Tj 0.1606 Tw T* (went into great detail about the US Government\220s response to the)Tj 0.012 Tc -0.012 Tw T* (threat from al-Qaeda during Clinton\220s second term. But it had little \ to)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0324 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (say about the rising salience of terrorism in the international system)Tj 0.0048 Tc -0.0048 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (generally or about the possibly portentous signi\223cance of the events \ in)Tj T* (Oklahoma City and in the Tokyo subway system in 1995 that were not)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0094 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (remotely linked to al-Qaeda or even Islam. Nor was there any verdict)Tj 0.1127 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (on the wider implications, for example, of the Clinton Administra-)Tj 0.1719 Tw T* (tion\220s essentially friendly line towards the terrorists of the Kosovo\ )Tj 0.0422 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Liberation Army \(KLA\) in 1999. Such a blinkered approach seems all)Tj 0.0105 Tc -0.0105 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (the more inadequate when we consider the response to 9/11 of the US)Tj 0.0066 Tc -0.0066 Tw T* (Administration with the broad support of Congress. This was of course)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1614 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (to declare a war not on al-Qaeda alone but at least rhetorically to)Tj 0.0122 Tc -0.0122 Tw T* (attempt to lead a universal \217War on Terror\220. The present work, by \ con-)Tj 0.017 Tc -0.017 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (trast, offers a longer-term perspective than is currently fashionable. I\ t)Tj 0.0108 Tw T* (also presents a canvas that embraces the West as a whole rather than)Tj 0.0942 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (just the United States and examines many different terrorist groups)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (rather than concentrating only on those with an Islamist connection.)Tj -0.0115 Tw 1 -1.333 Td (I stated earlier that no two informed people seem able to agree about)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.04 Tw -1 -1.333 Td (how to de\223ne terrorism. But readers are surely entitled to know what \ )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw T* (I)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0113 Tc -0.0132 Tw 0.626 0 Td (have in mind when I employ this term. For me it is simply the use of)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf -0.0046 Tc -0.0013 Tw -0.626 -1.333 Td (politically-motivated sub-state/non-state violence)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 20.877 0 Td (. Motives and justi\223cations)Tj -0.001 Tc -0.0049 Tw -20.877 -1.333 Td (are irrelevant to my de\223nition. And so too are the precise methods us\ ed)Tj 0.0032 Tc -0.0091 Tw T* (or the locations or the targets. In short, so-called guerrillas operatin\ g in)Tj -0.0008 Tc -0.0051 Tw T* (non-state uniforms in rural areas and targeting only the armed forces of\ )Tj 0.0113 Tc -0.0061 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (a sovereign state, like the rebels led by Washington against the British\ )Tj 0.2257 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Crown, are for me terrorists no less and no more than snipers or)Tj 0.0593 Tw T* (bombers targeting civilians in an urban context.)Tj 0 Tw 5.85 0 0 5.85 239.7718 115.1895 Tm (15)Tj 0.0593 Tw 9 0 0 9 248.7128 112.0395 Tm (An attempted )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tw (coup)Tj 0.0013 Tc -24.356 -1.333 Td (d\220\351tat)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0073 Tw 2.733 0 Td (involving bloodshed is also a terroristic event. But of course if the)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0081 Tw -2.733 -1.333 Td (perpetrators are successful they cease to be terrorists \205 a point gra\ sped)Tj 0.0433 Tw T* (long ago by Sir John Harrington when he wrote: \217Treason doth never)Tj 0.023 Tw T* (prosper, what\220s the reason? For if it prosper none dare call it treas\ on.\220)Tj -0.0056 Tc -0.0003 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Sovereign states, on the other hand, cannot, according to my de\223nitio\ n,)Tj 0 Tc -0.0059 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (commit acts of terrorism against their own citizens. They may of course)Tj 0 Tw 8 0 0 8 29.5038 544.7745 Tm (8)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 1.446 0 Td (The West\220s Road to 9/11)Tj ET Q Q endstream endobj 133 0 obj << /Width 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 72 /Length 809 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HVɑ0 S01~ b0t)uԾ]CEA}3ϱ1ifI-Ln]AܼsvcýjkxE8@+ÒJ b0R̩\1,)`v (x'xolqc [i0H> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /Contents 132 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 133 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /CropBox [0.0000305176 0.0000305176 357.166 578.268] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] >> endobj 136 0 obj << /Length 4444 >> stream q 1 0 0 1 -9.6377716 -28.3464661 cm 0 0 391 612 re W n q 0 612.009 390.996 -612 re W n 1 0 0 1 9.6377716 28.3464661 cm BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0113 Tc 0.1172 Tw 9 0 0 9 29.5433 520.0396 Tm (behave brutally and create a widespread climate of fear, as with the)Tj 0.0501 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Committee of Public Safety in Revolutionary France \(whose activities)Tj 0.0048 Tc -0.0107 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (from my perspective were most unhelpfully called the Reign of Terror\),)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.2931 Tw T* (the KGB and the Gestapo. But the perpetrators concerned, being)Tj 0.0028 Tc -0.0087 Tw T* (employees of a state and operating within it, should not in my opinion)Tj 0.0075 Tc -0.0134 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (be con\224ated de\223nitionally with non-state actors \205 though they m\ ay be)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0528 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (at least as worthy of condemnation from an ethical standpoint. I do,)Tj 0.1233 Tw T* (however, refer in the following pages to state-sponsors of terrorism.)Tj 0.0283 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (What I have in mind here is when sovereign states provide assistance)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf -0.0034 Tc -0.0025 Tw 0 -1.333 TD [(beyond their)-281(own borders)]TJ /T1_0 1 Tf (, to independent terrorist groups as, for example,)Tj 0.0114 Tc 0.0412 Tw T* (when during the 1980s the United States provided Stinger missiles to)Tj 0.358 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (Islamic terrorists seeking to overthrow Afghanistan\220s pro-Moscow)Tj 0.0107 Tc -0.0166 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (regime \(with which at the same time the United States had diplomatic)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0717 Tw T* (relations\). On the other hand, what on a strict view do not count as)Tj 0.0038 Tc -0.0097 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (state-sponsorship of terrorism are the activities of state-employed irre\ g-)Tj 0.0035 Tc -0.0094 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (ulars operating in other countries as if they were genuine non-state ter\ -)Tj 0.0074 Tc -0.0133 Tw T* (rorists when they actually are not. For example, during the early 1980s)Tj 0.0037 Tc -0.0096 Tw T* (the Libyan Government sent its own personnel to assassinate individu-)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0194 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (als in Paris, Rome and London and these were widely seen as terrorist)Tj 0.1236 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (deeds \205 though in fact they were acts of low-intensity international)Tj -0.0137 Tw T* (warfare on Libya\220s part. Also excluded from my de\223nition of terror\ ism)Tj 0.0791 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (would be violent deeds committed, with or without foreign support,)Tj -0.0028 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (during what I de\223ne as a genuine civil war \205 that is a con\224ict \ within a)Tj 0.0293 Tw T* (country where two functioning governments with identi\223able capital)Tj 0.0351 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (cities come into existence, as in Spain during the late 1930s or in the)Tj 0.0704 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (United States during the 1860s. On this test neither Afghanistan nor)Tj 0.1188 Tw T* (Nicaragua nor El Salvador experienced a civil war during the 1980s.)Tj -0.0127 Tw T* (Instead, there was in each case a single widely-recognised government)Tj 0.0091 Tc -0.015 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (facing a serious terrorist insurgency backed to a greater or lesser exte\ nt)Tj 0.0113 Tc 0.0539 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (by outside state-sponsors. Of course I am conscious that, as with any)Tj 0.0048 Tc -0.0107 Tw T* (attempted de\223nition of terrorism, grey areas remain. For example, how\ )Tj -0.0036 Tc -0.0023 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (does one precisely de\223ne violence? And where does political motivatio\ n)Tj 0.0031 Tc -0.009 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (end and Ma\223a-style criminality begin? But I hope that readers will ne\ v-)Tj 0.0113 Tc -0.0095 Tw T* (ertheless conclude that I use the term \217terrorism\220, as I have here\ rather)Tj 0.0062 Tc -0.0121 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (arbitrarily de\223ned it, with a fair degree of consistency in the pages\ that)Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 -1.333 TD (follow.)Tj /T1_2 1 Tf 0.0057 Tc 0 -2 TD (Notes)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0154 Tc -0.0154 Tw 8 0 0 8 34.181 69.0395 Tm [(1)-831(The text of some of the presentations was later published. See Institute\ for)]TJ 0.0171 Tc 0.1023 Tw 1.42 -1.25 Td (Strategic Studies, )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf (Europe and America in the 1970s: I: Between Detente and)Tj 0 Tw 0 -1.25 TD (Confrontation)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.1475 Tw 6.327 0 Td (; and )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf (II: Society and Power)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 12.806 0 Td (, Adelphi Papers, nos 70 and 71,)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw -19.132 -1.25 Td (London, 1970.)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tw 28.691 63.217 Td (Introduction)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 6.235 0 Td (9)Tj ET Q Q endstream endobj 137 0 obj << /Width 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 72 /Length 775 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HV0 T1Xb6/vnfHَ8 #1b ~\afl<=Ghg7WYv8\`|G˵w?:"'ky[OEްw1+sc% x vp0<`[I{ t@6^\X=@$@7D(8;TV9䓏+Ӕ#5<1K.HњYdЎoVJk6diw6SFlQK㑍iS_;+93f eae.avξ1T!Ps<5D g'y .$ dļ8-74^!:WF*޴ބzCVH &=7}3fn\1ڍ䥌 e(⪬1UՃ*MCVkA#>/Dr`uyc Y"h_fs2 N(7J擙QM[g kyvOQ/:~ tBH endstream endobj 135 0 obj << /LastModified (D:20060508093242) /Resources << /Font << /T1_2 38 0 R /T1_1 29 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /Contents 136 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 137 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /CropBox [0.0000305176 0.0000305176 357.166 578.268] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] >> endobj 140 0 obj << /Length 5994 >> stream q 1 0 0 1 -22.6771698 -28.3464661 cm 0 0 391 612 re W n q 0 612.009 390.996 -612 re W n 1 0 0 1 22.6771698 28.3464661 cm BT /CS0 cs 1 scn /GS0 gs /T1_0 1 Tf 0.0161 Tc -0.0161 Tw 8 0 0 8 34.1418 520.7746 Tm [(2)-830(David Carlton, )]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf (MacDonald versus Henderson: The Foreign Policy of the Second)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 1.42 -1.25 Td (Labour Government)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf (, London, 1970.)Tj -1.42 -1.25 Td [(3)-841(David Carlton, )]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 8.685 0 Td (Anthony Eden: A Biography)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf (, London, 1981.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0058 Tw -8.685 -1.25 Td [(4)-829(On 5 October 1938 Churchill said in the House of Commons in the after-)]TJ 0.1236 Tw 1.42 -1.25 Td (math of the Munich settlement in which Czechoslovakia had been dis-)Tj 0.18 Tw 0 -1.25 TD (membered: \217And do not suppose that this is the end. This is only the)Tj 0.0135 Tc -0.0135 Tw T* (beginning of the reckoning. This is only the \223rst sip, the \223rst fo\ retaste of a)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0402 Tw T* (bitter cup which will be proffered to us year by year unless by a suprem\ e)Tj 0.0518 Tw T* (recovery of moral health and martial vigour, we arise again and take our\ )Tj 0.0126 Tc -0.0126 Tw T* (stand for freedom as in the olden time.\220 )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tw 19.197 0 Td (Hansard)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0126 Tw (, vol. CCCIX, cols 359\20574,)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw -19.197 -1.25 Td (5 October 1938.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.3221 Tw -1.42 -1.25 Td [(5)-829(David Carlton, \217The Future of Political Substate Violence\220, in Yon\ ah)]TJ 0.0176 Tw 1.42 -1.25 Td (Alexander, David Carlton and Paul Wilkinson \(eds\), )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 25.459 0 Td (Terrorism: Theory and)Tj 0.0056 Tc 0 Tw -25.459 -1.25 Td (Practice)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0056 Tw (, Boulder, Colorado, 1979, p. 219. Italics supplied.)Tj -1.42 -1.25 Td [(6)-841(International Institute for Strategic Studies, )]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tw 22.072 0 Td (Newsletter)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0056 Tw (, Winter 2001, p. 1.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.0083 Tw -22.072 -1.25 Td [(7)-829(Of course the IISS is independent of all governments and takes no of\223\ cial)]TJ 0.0007 Tc -0.0007 Tw 1.42 -1.25 Td (position on any issue. But its membership and its Council, especially du\ ring)Tj 0.0082 Tc -0.0082 Tw T* (the Cold War era but also since, have tended to be dominated by friends \ of)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (the West.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.2768 Tw -1.42 -1.25 Td [(8)-829(Quoted in Bruce Hoffman, \217Current Research on Terrorism and Low-)]TJ 0.0541 Tw 1.42 -1.25 Td (Intensity Con\224ict\220)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf (, Studies in Con\224ict and Terrorism)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf (, vol. XV, no. 1, 1992, )Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (p. 25.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1493 Tw -1.42 -1.25 Td [(9)-829(Michael Howard, \217What\220s in a Name?: How to Fight Terrorism\220, )]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 0 Tw 33.675 0 Td (Foreign)Tj 0.0056 Tc -32.255 -1.25 Td (Affairs)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0056 Tw (, vol. LXXXI, no. 1, January/February 2002, pp. 8\20513.)Tj 0.0171 Tc -0.0108 Tw -2 -1.25 Td [(1)11(0)-829(Michael Howard, \217The Bush Doctrine: It\220s a Brutal World, So Act Br\ utally\220,)]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 2 -1.25 Td (The Sunday Times)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf (, 23 March 2003.)Tj 0.0171 Tc 0.1053 Tw -2 -1.25 Td [(1)11(1)-829(David Carlton and Carlo Schaerf \(eds\), )]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 0.1054 Tw 21.535 0 Td (International Terrorism and World)Tj 0 Tw -19.535 -1.25 Td (Security)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0.3715 Tw (, London, 1975; and David Carlton and Carlo Schaerf \(eds\),)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw T* (Contemporary Terror: Studies in Sub-State Violence)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 22.298 0 Td (, London, 1981.)Tj -24.298 -1.25 Td [(12)-841(Alexander, Carlton and Wilkinson \(eds\), )]TJ /T1_1 1 Tf 21.315 0 Td (Terrorism: Theory and Practice)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 Tc 0 Tw (.)Tj -0.0038 Tc -0.0078 Tw -21.315 -1.25 Td [(13)-862(Carlton, \217The Future of Political Substate Violence\220, pp. 201\2053\ 0. My reference)]TJ 0.0056 Tc 0.0517 Tw 2 -1.25 Td (to a new Dark Age was prompted by the speculation of the Rand Corpora-)Tj -0.0114 Tc -0.0002 Tw T* (tion\220s Brian Jenkins, who had written in 1975: \217If governments can\ not protect)Tj 0.0028 Tc -0.0144 Tw T* (their citizens, as terrorists seem to be demonstrating will governments \ as we)Tj -0.0056 Tc -0.006 Tw T* (know them become obsolete? The historical growth of national governments\ )Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0138 Tw T* (in the \223rst place depended in part on national leadership, often a mo\ narch,)Tj 0.0398 Tw T* (being able to monopolize the means of organized violence. If the militar\ y-)Tj 0.0032 Tc -0.0148 Tw T* (power relationships are altered drastically in favor of small groups tha\ t obey)Tj -0.0115 Tc -0.0001 Tw T* (no government, will we enter an era of international warlordism in which\ the)Tj 0.0056 Tc 0.0922 Tw T* (people of the world and their governments are subjected to the extortion\ )Tj 0.002 Tc -0.0136 Tw T* (demands of many small groups?\220 Brian M. Jenkins, \217International Te\ rrorism:)Tj -0.0091 Tc -0.0025 Tw T* (A New Mode of Con\224ict\220, in Carlton and Schaerf \(eds\), )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 25.239 0 Td (International Terrrorism)Tj 0.0056 Tc -0.0172 Tw -25.239 -1.25 Td (and World Security)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf (, p. 228. My recognition of the vulnerability of computers)Tj -0.0062 Tc -0.0054 Tw T* (to terrorists derived from Bertil H\344gmann, \217Slaves that threaten t\ he Masters?\220,)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf -0.0059 Tc -0.0057 Tw T* (Security World)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0058 Tc 6.296 0 Td (, May 1977.)Tj 0.0057 Tc 0 Tw -8.296 -1.25 Td (14)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0171 Tc 0.0235 Tw 2 0 Td (Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the Un\ ited)Tj 0.0056 Tc 0 Tw T* (States)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf -0.0056 Tw (, Washington, D.C., 2004.)Tj 0.0052 Tc -0.0052 Tw -2 -1.25 Td [(15)-841(A recent US Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright, takes a different vi\ ew on)]TJ 0.0171 Tc 0.1119 Tw 2 -1.25 Td (this point. In her memoirs she recalled that Middle Eastern leaders had)Tj 0.0057 Tc 0 Tw -2 63 Td (10)Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0.0056 Tc -0.0056 Tw 2.026 0 Td (The West\220s Road to 9/11)Tj ET Q Q endstream endobj 141 0 obj << /Width 44 /Filter /FlateDecode /Height 72 /Length 889 /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 8 0 R >> stream HV0 08;cW&8Nt/w' ~ﰹq U?AG"v8_M&9k\}87usԎń!.󷴘^3@j /& xN09f :NĕUGcu"h_֫W1t\(==^!axgk\ 91ف5溹݌P㍇#;7Ԁ?_9r}E3P X<u3ȍ83-Z,2B yRIVl}Sx|+b@:phԚ w;9;Ix h8_7w<˽BJM(1x< xt8˜ <ٸ&o2u & "*";/{$jC&0ōRJu"VnfIr<[֢zSX ^Qu 3o ;AYWpDsv{:mh`Nfl􂻔FYcXܭ3MBLkڔ,۝\)QPq6V,z&_擂BKuKx1{pηm'e*j:9]ôAwt$$hE#=2ϑ ma9d&]ŝ6,P}mдNz%icEZEO#[T=\\O;@:8ZW}=답+\f?d mUn_U Hf':pR,KCiu4zCvs`v5 endstream endobj 139 0 obj << /LastModified (D:20060508093242) /Resources << /Font << /T1_1 29 0 R /T1_0 15 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /ExtGState << /GS0 20 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS0 21 0 R >> >> /TrimBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /Contents 140 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page /Thumb 141 0 R /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] /CropBox [0.0000305176 0.0000305176 357.166 578.268] /BleedBox [0.0 0.0 357.165 578.268] >> endobj 1 0 obj << /Kids [3 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 37 0 R 48 0 R 77 0 R 81 0 R 85 0 R 89 0 R 93 0 R 97 0 R 107 0 R 111 0 R 115 0 R 119 0 R 123 0 R 127 0 R 131 0 R 135 0 R 139 0 R] /Type /Pages /Count 20 >> endobj 142 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 1 0 R >> endobj 143 0 obj << /ModDate (D:20170719005928+02'00') /CreationDate (D:20170719005928+02'00') /Creator (pdftk 2.01 - www.pdftk.com) /Producer (itext-paulo-155 \(itextpdf.sf.net-lowagie.com\)) >> endobj xref 0 144 0000000000 65535 f 0000423223 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000146478 00000 n 0000005601 00000 n 0000000015 00000 n 0000143840 00000 n 0000144407 00000 n 0000144359 00000 n 0000143948 00000 n 0000146288 00000 n 0000144961 00000 n 0000146390 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000161252 00000 n 0000155945 00000 n 0000146818 00000 n 0000147430 00000 n 0000155275 00000 n 0000148148 00000 n 0000156991 00000 n 0000160702 00000 n 0000159730 00000 n 0000157051 00000 n 0000159766 00000 n 0000160754 00000 n 0000161064 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000171822 00000 n 0000169962 00000 n 0000161653 00000 n 0000162098 00000 n 0000169423 00000 n 0000162766 00000 n 0000170961 00000 n 0000171541 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000182176 00000 n 0000179318 00000 n 0000172236 00000 n 0000172613 00000 n 0000178852 00000 n 0000173272 00000 n 0000179963 00000 n 0000180871 00000 n 0000180921 00000 n 0000181844 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000201217 00000 n 0000186701 00000 n 0000182651 00000 n 0000182861 00000 n 0000186308 00000 n 0000183219 00000 n 0000187867 00000 n 0000187260 00000 n 0000187493 00000 n 0000194673 00000 n 0000188450 00000 n 0000188869 00000 n 0000194174 00000 n 0000189527 00000 n 0000196556 00000 n 0000195505 00000 n 0000195570 00000 n 0000196326 00000 n 0000195978 00000 n 0000197329 00000 n 0000196736 00000 n 0000196957 00000 n 0000197908 00000 n 0000198356 00000 n 0000198437 00000 n 0000198509 00000 n 0000198581 00000 n 0000200453 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000205124 00000 n 0000201754 00000 n 0000204518 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000209372 00000 n 0000205551 00000 n 0000208707 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000213311 00000 n 0000209799 00000 n 0000212570 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000215365 00000 n 0000213712 00000 n 0000214974 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000217415 00000 n 0000215779 00000 n 0000217024 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000367753 00000 n 0000278269 00000 n 0000271538 00000 n 0000217816 00000 n 0000362814 00000 n 0000352301 00000 n 0000278706 00000 n 0000363306 00000 n 0000366983 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000373696 00000 n 0000368209 00000 n 0000372756 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000379814 00000 n 0000374113 00000 n 0000378856 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000385610 00000 n 0000380231 00000 n 0000384717 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000391648 00000 n 0000386027 00000 n 0000390748 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000397490 00000 n 0000392065 00000 n 0000396559 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000403135 00000 n 0000397907 00000 n 0000402239 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000409471 00000 n 0000403552 00000 n 0000408526 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000415300 00000 n 0000409888 00000 n 0000414389 00000 n 0000000000 65535 f 0000422806 00000 n 0000415730 00000 n 0000421781 00000 n 0000423425 00000 n 0000423478 00000 n trailer << /Info 143 0 R /ID [] /Root 142 0 R /Size 144 >> startxref 423675 %%EOF