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Extra resources for Electronics : circuits and systems
This is almost true when we use a digital meter to measure vOUT. We find that the measured value of vOUT is almost correct, allowing for possible tolerance errors in the resistor values. However, current is drawn from the output in most practical circuits. This is what happens: Current i passes through R1. At the output of the divider, a current iLOAD passes through the load while the remainder i2 passes on through R2. The diagram shows that R2 and the load (RLOAD) are resistances in parallel. 4 When a load is connected to the divider, it is in parallel with R2.
The voltage at the point between the resistors is low (about 10 mV) in very bright light, but rises to about 5 V in darkness. With LDRs other than the ORP12, voltages will be different and it may be necessary to change the value of R1 or replace it with a variable resistor. • Output is the sound from an audible warning device, such as a siren. 9. The audible warning device sounds when the light intensity falls below a given level. The function of the circuit is to detect an intruder passing between the sensor and a local source of light, such as a street light.
Essentially, a potential divider consists of two resistors connected in series. 1. 2. The supply vIN comes from a battery or power pack on the left. The potential vOUT across R2 is measured by test leads on the right. Current and pd Assuming that no current flows out of the divider at the junction of R1 and R2, the same current, i, flows through both resistors. Ohm’s law applies to each resistor. For R2: Ohm’s Law also applies to the two resistors when connected in series: Combining these two equations: We use this equation to calculate vOUT, given vIN and the values of the two resistors.