By Adrienne Heritier
This publication discusses the swap of 5 vital institutional principles of decision-making within the eu Union and proposes a common clarification of long term institutional swap that is additionally appropriate for the swap of decision-making principles past Europe.
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Additional info for Explaining Institutional Change in Europe
E. do not have to rely on monitoring and sanctioning in order to persist. But as we have seen, some authors restrict the usage of institution to rules that require monitoring and enforcement through sanctions because there is a risk of actors not abiding by the collective action agreement. ²⁴ Moreover, sunk costs associated with coordinating behaviour around the existing institutional rule, free-rider problems, distributional issues may prevent coordination around a new institutional rule (Greif and Laitin 2004).
Incorporating distributional eﬀects into the bargaining of institutional rules renders the process much more diﬃcult. 38 The longer a distributional bargain is expected to be valid, the harder actors will negotiate over the distribution of gains and the more diﬃcult cooperation will be (Fearon 1998).
While Bartolini (2005) and Kay (2003) point to diﬀerent groups of actors aﬀected by institutional rules, other authors, in particular Pierson, focus on the relevant time perspective in question. While an institutional design may meet the objectives within a relatively short time span, over a longer period of ³⁶ Personal communication. Theories of Institutional Change 39 time it is much more likely that institutional rules will produce consequences that were not anticipated by the original group of designers.