By Martin R. Adams, Maurice O. Moss
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Extra info for Food Microbiology, Third Edition (Issues in Environmental Science)
There are fungi which have certainly evolved from terrestrial forms but have become morphologically and physiologically well adapted to fresh water or marine habitats. They include members of all the major groups of terrestrial fungi, the ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, zygomycetes and deuteromycetes and there is the possibility that some species from this diverse ﬂora could be responsible for spoilage of a specialized food commodity associated with water such as a salad crop cultivated with overhead irrigation from a river or lake, but this is speculation.
Non-viable cells fail to reduce the dye and appear blue. Redox potential exerts an important elective eﬀect on the microﬂora of a food. Although microbial growth can occur over a wide spectrum of 31 Chapter 3 redox potential, individual micro-organisms are conveniently classiﬁed into one of several physiological groups on the basis of the redox range over which they can grow and their response to oxygen. Obligate or strict aerobes are those organisms that are respiratory, generating most of their energy from oxidative phosphorylation using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor in the process.
It has a high E0 0 and is a powerful oxidizing agent; if suﬃcient air is present in a food, a high positive potential will result and most other redox couples present will, if allowed to equilibrate, be largely in the oxidized state. Hence the intrinsic factor of redox potential is inextricably linked with the extrinsic factor of storage atmosphere. Increasing the access of air to a food material by chopping, grinding, or mincing will increase its Eh. 6. Similarly, exclusion of air as in vacuum packing or canning will reduce the Eh.