By Michael Newton
Crimes stimulated by way of prejudice date to the start of human background. regardless of laws addressing bias-driven offenses hate crimes proceed to plague sleek American society. starting with the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 six days later, this chronology catalogs hate crimes and the suitable statutes and amendments affecting the definition, prosecution and punishment of hate crimes in the U.S. via 2013. The advent sketches the heritage of hate crimes laws via 1968, whereas an appendix lists and in short describes hate crime statutes shortly in strength in quite a few states. From racial violence and assaults on gays and lesbians to the bombings of abortion clinics by way of "pro-life" extremists to attacks on Muslims within the wake of 9-11, this reference paintings lays naked an unsightly yet serious point of yankee historical past.
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Extra info for Hate Crime in America, 1968-2013: A Chronology of Offenses, Legislation and Related Events
Communist Party. The Jewish Armed Resistance Strike Unit claims credit, in a phone call to the Daily News. June 23, 1976—Queens, NY: Firebombs damage two vehicles near the Pan Am cargo terminal at John F. Kennedy International Airport. A call to the New York Post claims credit for the Jewish Armed Resistance. July 7, 1976—Birmingham, AL: Police arrest eight whites, including at least one KKK member, after a series of shootings in racially troubled neighborhoods. August 18, 1976—Douglas, AZ: Dairy farmer George Hanigan and his sons kidnap Hispanic migrant workers Manuel García Loya, Eleazar Ruelas Zavala, and Bernabe Herrera, stripping and binding them, slashing and binding them, burning their feet with hot irons, and ﬁring birdshot into their backs before dumping them in the desert to die.
April 15, 1975—Coram, Long Island, NY: Vandals smash two windows at a Chemical Bank branch. ” April 18, 1975—Los Angeles, CA: FBI agents and local police search the homes of several Jewish Defense League members, seeking evidence in a series of recent bombings. A JDL spokesman denies involvement in the basts but says his group applauds them. April 25, 1975—San Francisco, CA: Six members of the Jewish Defense League invade offices of the San Francisco Jewish Welfare Federation, ransacking the premises and assaulting four staffers, including a disabled Holocaust survivor.
Chambers. February 5, 1971—Wilmington, NC: Violence erupts after racists phone bomb threats to a local black church. Parishioners fortify the church and trade shots with white gunmen. Before National Guardsmen restore order on February 8, a black sniper kills one white man and police fatally wound a black youth. February 23, 1971—Princeton, NJ: Police jail three white men for burning a cross at a local football ﬁeld in violation of state law. April 3, 1971—Ypsilanti, MI: Klan members tarand-feather Dr.