By Kenneth M. Goldstein
Greater than person attributes and attitudes inspire members to take part in politics and extra is going into curiosity workforce impression than monetary donations and direct task. to respond to primary questions on what determines while and why humans perform politics and the way prepared pursuits move approximately attempting to effect legislative decision-making, we needs to know how and why political leaders recruit which contributors of the general public into the political enviornment. having a look from the ground up with survey info and from the pinnacle down with info from curiosity crew interviews, Goldstein develops and exams a concept of the way tactical offerings in a grass roots crusade are made.
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Additional info for Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Participation in America
In short, grass roots communications demonstrate to legislators that traceability has been established. Framing Issues and Influencing Opinions Changing how a vote is labeled or framed is also an effective way for lobbyists to influence legislators' calculations about the electoral consequences of their actions. In addition, winning the battle to define what a vote is about can influence legislative decisions by shaping the actual opinions of constituents and legislators. Most certainly, how an issue or roll call vote is debated is often a function of the environment or congressional rules.
In one of the more robust empirical findings in political science, we know that higher socioeconomic status - specifically, higher levels of education help citizens meet the nontrivial costs of participation and spur higher rates of political activity (Conway 1991; Milbrath and Goel 1977; Verba and Nie 1972; Verba, Schlozman, and Brady 1995a; Wolfinger and Rosenstone 1980). Yet increases in education levels alone cannot explain the rise in constituent communications to Congress that has apparently taken place over the past two decades.
In fact the identity of the citizen communicating to Congress is a major piece of information that is being communicated. Votes are also blunt instruments. They are constrained in their ability to convey precise information. No matter one's skills, everyone's ballot conveys the same type of information. Conversely, communications to Congress convey specific information about the attitudes of particular citizens on particular issues. Moreover, the value of the information conveyed in the contact is often a function of the skill and status of the individual crafting the communication.