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By Paul P. Bernard

they represented a congeries of assorted languages, cultures and traditions. additionally the prestige of Germany, in conception governed via the Hapsburgs of their means of Holy Roman Emperors, had because the end of the Thirty Years conflict been in a few doubt. In perform the Hapsburgs may anticipate obedience constantly of their relatives dominions, now not really large and normally focused within the West (Vorderosterreich); occasionally within the South German Catholic states; and almost under no circumstances within the Protestant North. Then, too, within the moment half the 17th century Prussia had emerged as an influence, which even if nonetheless technically part of the Empire, used to be more and more able and prepared to pursue a completely autonomous direction. the placement of Charles VI used to be hence no longer a completely chuffed one. the longer term choices which might appear to have faced him have been both to acquiesce within the carrying on with erosion of Hapsburg impact in Germany, which eventually may perhaps good have ended in his ruling over a Danubian Empire with a German-speaking minority; or to aim to buttress his place in Germany, which might have required finally a potential modus vivendi among his German and non-German subjects.

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By Paul P. Bernard

they represented a congeries of assorted languages, cultures and traditions. additionally the prestige of Germany, in conception governed via the Hapsburgs of their means of Holy Roman Emperors, had because the end of the Thirty Years conflict been in a few doubt. In perform the Hapsburgs may anticipate obedience constantly of their relatives dominions, now not really large and normally focused within the West (Vorderosterreich); occasionally within the South German Catholic states; and almost under no circumstances within the Protestant North. Then, too, within the moment half the 17th century Prussia had emerged as an influence, which even if nonetheless technically part of the Empire, used to be more and more able and prepared to pursue a completely autonomous direction. the placement of Charles VI used to be hence no longer a completely chuffed one. the longer term choices which might appear to have faced him have been both to acquiesce within the carrying on with erosion of Hapsburg impact in Germany, which eventually may perhaps good have ended in his ruling over a Danubian Empire with a German-speaking minority; or to aim to buttress his place in Germany, which might have required finally a potential modus vivendi among his German and non-German subjects.

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40/2. 22 Frederick to Riedesel, 4 January 1778, P. C. 40/6. 39 DEATH OF THE ELECTOR MAX JOSEPH a long letter analyzing the situation as he now saw it to his intimate, Count Solms, ambassador in St. Petersburg. He began by observing that this latest event would probably stop the Austrians from, as he was sure had been their purpose, extending their frontiers in the East. Bavaria for some time had whetted the Austrian appetite and it was not hard to guess that Kaunitz would now concentrate his efforts on it.

176. 44 AUSTRIAN OCCUPATION OF BAVARIA alities in England were of the opinion that the Bavarian issue might well bring about a war in Europe which would occupy the attention of France and prevent it from supporting the American rebels too openly. England, at any rate, was too busy with American affairs to take much of a part in those of Germany. 42 This judgment, perhaps, was accurate enough at the time it was made, but it was hardly to be supposed that England would, in the long run, take no interest whatever in so important a regrouping on the Continent.

When he informed his prince of the course the negotiations were taking, he received the stern answer that in no case were the Upper Palatinate, Neuburg and Sulzbach to be surrendered and that he was to try to elicit an offer for Upper and Lower Bavaria only. 50 Still, this was eminently worth talking about and the Empire would have been well satisfied to make such a bargain. But at this very moment Beckers, the leading spirit of the whole affair, died. When Maria Theresia, on the 9th of November 1777, received news of his untimely death, she was disconsolate.

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