By Leonardo da Vinci
"It is a miracle that anyone guy must have saw, learn, and written down a lot in one lifetime." — Kenneth Clark
Painter, sculptor, musician, scientist, architect, engineer, inventor . . . might be no different determine so totally embodies the Western excellent of "Renaissance man" as Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo used to be now not content material, even though, to grasp an inventive approach or checklist the mechanics of a tool; he used to be pushed by way of an insatiable interest to appreciate why. His writings, pursuits, and musings are uniformly characterised through an incisive, probing, wondering brain. It was once with this piercing highbrow scrutiny and unique medical thoroughness that Leonardo undertook the research of the human body.
This unheard of quantity reproduces greater than 1,200 of Leonardo's anatomical drawings on 215 basically published black-and-white plates. The drawings were prepared in chronological series to reveal Leonardo's improvement and development as an anatomist. Leonardo's textual content, which accompanies the drawings — occasionally explanatory, occasionally autobiographical and anecdotal — has been translated into English via the celebrated scientific professors Drs. O'Malley and Saunders. of their attention-grabbing biographical advent, the authors overview Leonardo's place within the historic improvement of anatomy and anatomical representation. each one plate is followed via explanatory notes and an review of the person plate and a sign of its dating to the paintings as a whole.
While impressive for his or her impressive attractiveness and precision, Leonardo's anatomical drawings have been additionally some distance just before all modern paintings and scientifically the equivalent of something that seemed good into the 17th century. in contrast to so much of his predecessors and contemporaries, Leonardo took not anything on belief and had religion in basic terms in his personal observations and experiments. In anatomy, as in his different investigations, Leonardo's nice contrast is the actually medical nature of his tools. Herein then are over 1,200 of Leonardo's anatomical illustrations geared up into 8 significant components of analysis: Osteological method, Myological method, Comparative Anatomy, anxious approach, breathing process, Alimentary method, Genito-Urinary method, and Embryology.
Artists, illustrators, physicians, scholars, lecturers, scientists, and appreciators of Leonardo's awesome genius will locate in those 1,200 drawings the best union of artwork and technology. rigorously specific and actual of their facts, attractive and colourful of their process, they continue to be this day — approximately 5 centuries later — the best anatomical drawings ever made.
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A few examples of each type of benefit will illustrate the comprehensiveness of Alexander's short list. Protection from predators Avoidance of predators is one the most widespread factors leading to group-living in vertebrates (Alexander, 1974), although it may usually be the least obvious to the researcher. Co-operative behaviours directly related to this selective pressure include alarm calling, mobbing behaviour, sentinel behaviour, and group defence. g. Jarman, 1974). g. Rood, 1983, 1986). However, predation as a principle factor molding complex, co-operative avian social systems may be less widely appreciated.