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Additional resources for Making a New World: Founding Capitalism in the Bajío and Spanish North America
9 Meanwhile, Dutch investors and slave traders helped British planters transform Barbados and then Jamaica into sugar and slave colonies on the model of Brazil, soon followed by the French in Saint-Domingue. Charleston in the Carolinas (after early decades of conflictive trade with indigenous nations) was the first British mainland colony to become a slave plantation society, turning the model to rice and indigo. The praying Puritans of New England appear different, migrating as families, growing their own food, fishing, cutting timber, building ships—all without benefit of a subordinated population.
It was a colonial creation linked to the far corners of the globe by silver and the markets that it opened. Driven locally by profit-seeking commercial ways, it included people from Mesoamerica, Europe, and Africa. Early on nearly everyone communicated in Spanish, a language of global empire and trade. Diverse people, nearly all new to the region, prayed in churches loyal to Catholic Rome—churches in which many visions of Christianity jostled together in a spacious religious culture. They built a commercial society in the lands of the Chichimecas.
In the Bajío and Spanish North America (and I believe across New Spain) most mulattoes mixed African and diverse indigenous ancestries, favored their African heritage by appearance or choice, spoke Spanish, and lived in the Hispanic commercial world—mostly as working subordinates. Ethnic distinctions finer than Spaniard, mestizo, mulatto, and indio (preceded by otomí, tarasco, and mexicano) rarely appear in the sources used here; I avoid them—hoping to avoid unnecessary confusions. For places and people currently well known—Querétaro, or don José de Gálvez—I aim for standard usage and spelling; for others I use place and personal names as I found them in the sources.