By Dennis Reinhartz, Gerald D. Saxon
From the 16th in the course of the mid-nineteenth centuries, Spain, then Mexico, and at last the us took possession of the land from the Gulf Coast of Texas and Mexico to the Pacific Coast of Alta and Baja California—today's American Southwest. each one nation confronted the problem of protecting directly to territory that was once poorly recognized and in moderation settled, and every spoke back through sending out army mapping expeditions to set obstacles and chart topographical good points. All 3 international locations well-known that turning terra incognita into in actual fact delineated political devices was once a key step in empire construction, as very important to their nationwide curiosity because the actions of the missionaries, civilian officers, settlers, and adventurers who within the footsteps of the soldier-engineers.
With essays via 8 best historians, this booklet deals the most up-tp-date and entire evaluation of the tactics through which Spanish, Mexican, and U.S. soldier-engineers mapped the southwestern frontier, in addition to the neighborhood or even geopolitical results in their mapping. 3 essays specialize in Spanish efforts to map the Gulf and Pacific Coasts, to chart the inland Southwest, and to outline and guard its limitations opposed to English, French, Russian, and American incursions. next essays examine the position that mapping performed either in Mexico's makes an attempt to take care of keep an eye on of its northern territory and within the usa' push to extend its political boundary to the Pacific Ocean. The concluding essay attracts connections among mapping within the Southwest and the geopolitical background of the Americas and Europe.
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Additional resources for Mapping and Empire: Soldier-Engineers on the Southwestern Frontier
Upon Miguel Costanzó’s return to Mexico, his observations were incorporated into the ﬁrst map of the Paciﬁc coast to delineate the modern San Francisco Bay and to reﬂect geographic discovery since the area was charted by Vizcaíno. Carta Reducida del Oceano Asiático, ó Mar del Sur, dated October 30, 1770, was printed in Madrid the following year. 7 Didier Robert de Vaugondy, Carte de la Californie (Paris, 1774). Virginia Garrett Cartographic History Library, University of Texas at Arlington Libraries.
The work of Alcalá Galiano and Valdés resolved continued doubt of the existence of the strait of Anián in lower latitudes, and cartographic results of the expedition were published in two charts in Madrid in 1795 and in three maps in the atlas to the Viage de las Goletas Sutil y Mexicana (Madrid, 1802). While the Sutil and the Mexicana were at sea, the Aranzazu, commanded by Jacinto Caamaño, with Pantoja and Martínez Zayas as pilots, sailed from San Blas on March 20 and reached Nootka on May 14.
After meeting with the commander of Unalaska, Potap Zaikof, and learning of Russian interest in occupying Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island, Martínez and López de Haro initiated return southward to San Blas on August 18. Martínez and López de Haro not only conﬁrmed Russian and English activity in territory claimed by Spain, but also produced a number of detailed maps delineating the coast from southeastern Alaska through the Aleutians and into Bering Strait. To prevent further encroachment, in December 1788 and January 1789, Viceroy Manuel Antonio Flores ordered Martínez to establish a fortiﬁed settlement at Nootka and secure Spanish control of the coast from San Francisco to Prince William Sound.