By Mohamed Gad-el-Hak
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Additional info for MEMS - Introduction and Fundamentals
14 Round-Robin Tests Mechanical testing of MEMS materials presents unique challenges as the above review shows. Convergence of test methods into a standard is still far in the future, but progress in that direction usually begins with a round-robin program in which a common material is tested by the method-of-choice in participating laboratories. , 1998c]. 3). Young’s modulus was measured as 174 Ϯ 20 GPa in bending, 137 Ϯ 5 GPa in resonance, and 139 Ϯ 20 GPa in tension. 2 GPa. These variations were alarming but in retrospect perhaps not too surprising given the newness of the test methods at that time.
Tai and Muller (1990) used a surface profilometer to trace the shapes of fixed-fixed beams at various load settings. By comparing measured traces and using a finite element analysis of the structure, they were able to determine Young’s modulus. 6. A voltage is applied between the conductive polysilicon beam and the substrate to pull the beam down, and the voltage that causes the beam to make contact is a measure of its stiffness. This concept was introduced early on by Petersen and Guarnieri (1979) and further developed by Gupta et al.
The microstructure of these MEMS materials is also different from that of bulk materials. 12. The result is similar to the cross-section of a piece of bamboo or wood, and the material is transversely isotropic. Test methods are not sensitive enough to measure the anisotropic constants. 1 lists metal films tested in a free-standing manner such as would be appropriate for use in MEMS. Only aluminum is currently used in that fashion, but the other materials are commonly used in the electronics industry and may be of interest.