By Guy Vandenbussche, Max Mergeay, Rob Van Houdt
This ebook is the second one quantity of a two-volume set summarizing forty years of key examine findings without delay relating to metal-resistant Cupriavidus/Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria). during this moment quantity, the structural and catalytic facts from bacterial basic and secondary transporters (P-ATPases, tripartite chemiosmotic cation/proton efflux structures, cation diffusion facilitators, significant Facilitator Superfamily and a few minor different types) are defined and certain for the corresponding C. metallidurans proteins. The on hand three-d buildings are reviewed intimately, together with RND and membrane fusion proteins (from tripartite chemiosmotic cation/proton efflux systems), sigma and anti-sigma regulatory proteins of the cnr efflux process (resistance to cobalt and nickel) and numerous periplasmic proteins quite often keen on the reaction to copper and mercury. additionally, the 1st quantity sketches the ancient and geographical context of those micro organism, that are normally present in business and polluted environments associated with zinc and different non-ferrous metallurgy, to demonstrate the interactions among micro organism and human actions and the prospective evolutionary results on bacterial genomes in particular so far as the organization of steel resistance genes with cellular genetic parts is anxious. It offers a close description of the reaction and underlying genetic determinants of kind pressure Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 to a number of metals. With excessive point resistance to cadmium, chromate, cobalt, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc mediated by way of recognized genes for cleansing carried by way of its megaplasmids pMOL28 and pMOL30. This description is complemented with the genomic context of the steel reaction genes in C. metallidurans CH34 with a spotlight on its mobilome together with insertion series components, transposons, integrative and conjugative components and genomic islands.
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Extra resources for Metal Response in Cupriavidus metallidurans: Volume II: Insights into the Structure-Function Relationship of Proteins
Metallidurans CH34 upon copper challenge (Monchy et al. 2006a; Bersch et al. 2008). A metagenomic DNA analysis of samples collected from the sludge of a tannery wastewater plant showed that, regarding copper resistance genes, copK is the most abundant gene just after the P-type ATPase copA (homologous to cupA and copF in C. metallidurans CH34) (Jia et al. 2013). Three 3 Structural Efforts on C. metallidurans CH34 … 43 and two copies of copK are present in the genome of the strains C. metallidurans NA4 and NE12, respectively, that are closely related to C.
The three methionine residues forming the metal ion coordination site in this latter as well as the methionine ion relay network (Long et al. 2010) are conserved in CusA and SilA from C. metallidurans CH34 except for the M755 residue. The M271/M755 pair is proposed to be the last step of the methionine relay channel before the extrusion of the Ag+/Cu+ ions through the funnel (Long et al. 2010). Site-directed mutagenesis of the M755 residue in CusA from E. coli impaired the transport activity of the RND protein (Long et al.
2015). The genes encoding these two proteins belong to gene clusters involved in lead and chromate resistance, respectively. PbrU (Rmet_5944 (pbrUa) and Rmet_6180 (pbrUb)) is probably not functional because of a Tn6049 insertion, but intact genes were detected in closely related strains such as NA1, NA4, NE12, H1130 and HMR-1, and encode proteins sharing 100 % sequence identity with PbrU of CH34. These six strains contain an additional gene encoding a protein that shares 75 % sequence identity with PbrU of CH34.