By S.Y. Lin, C.W. Dence
The structural complexity of lignin has regularly challenged the ingenuity of researchers to enhance appropriate equipment for its characterization ahead of and following a wide selection of chemical, organic, and actual remedies. supplied this is an updated compilation of lignin technique. Theoretical heritage and useful methods are mixed and - at any time when attainable - a approach is gifted in adequate aspect to allow the reader to accomplish the research completely by means of following the step by step description. the diversity of use of a style, its benefits and barriers are mentioned. additionally, ordinary analytical facts are proven and in comparison with effects got from different tools. The e-book serves the necessity of researchers and different pros in academia, the pulp and paper and allied industries. it truly is rather invaluable additionally to these with out earlier history in or adventure with lignin or lignocellulosics.
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Additional resources for Methods in Lignin Chemistry (Springer Series in Wood Science)
These reactions are more fully discussed on p. 31. I n contrast to alkylation, which requires the sodium salt of the amine, arylations can be performed on the base itself. Thus Chichibabin (304) reported that 2-aminopyridine and bromobenzene J ielded 2-anilinopyridine under the conditions of the Ullman reaction. However, later workers (305) were not able to duplicate his results, but were successful when they substituted iodobenzene for the bromobenzene. 2-Anilinopyridine has also been prepared from 2,2-dichloro-l,2-dihydro-l-phenylpyridine (prepared from 2-pyridone and phosgene) and liquid ammonia (306), and from pyridine and the sodium salt of aniline (7).
12. h'uclear Substitution Reactions (a) Halogenation. In contrast with pyridine itself, aminopyridines halogenate very readil) , and the halogen derivatives thus obtained are useful intermediates for synthesis. Their physical properties are summarized in Tables IX-13 to IX-19 (pp. ). 67). Continued chlorination under these conditions gives 2-amino-3,5-dichloropyridinein 75y0 yield. T h e structure of the monochloro derivative was proved by its preparation from 2,5-diaminopyridine by the Sandmeyer reaction (341).
T h e deamination reaction has been effected with ethanol (352) on diazotized 4-amino-3-pyridinesulfonic acid, and with hypophosphorous acid on diazotized ethyl 5-amino-2-methylnicotinate (6) in 627, yield, Other replacements, generally analogous to procedures in benzene chemistry, have been reported. Potassium ethyl xanthate (357) gives the disulfide (IX-23), mercaptoacetic acid (358) gives pyridylmercaptoacetic acid (IX-24), and copper thiocyanate gives S-thiocyanopyridine (IX-25). 59-362). These reactions fail, however, when the aminopyridine is unsubstituted (276).