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By Ramon Ruiz

Explicitly concentrating on the malaise of underdevelopment that has formed the rustic because the Spanish conquest, Ramón Eduardo Ruiz deals a wide ranging interpretation of Mexican historical past and tradition from the pre-Hispanic and colonial eras during the 20th century. Drawing on economics, psychology, literature, movie, and background, he unearths how improvement techniques have fostered evident inequalities, uncovers the basic function of race and sophistication in perpetuating poverty, and sheds new mild at the modern Mexican truth. all through, Ruiz lines a legacy of dependency on outsiders, and considers the weighty position the U.S. has performed, beginning with an unjust battle that price Mexico part its territory. in keeping with Ruiz’s a long time of analysis and shuttle in Mexico, this penetrating paintings is helping us larger comprehend the place the rustic has come, why it really is the place it really is at the present time, and the place it will probably cross within the future.

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By Ramon Ruiz

Explicitly concentrating on the malaise of underdevelopment that has formed the rustic because the Spanish conquest, Ramón Eduardo Ruiz deals a wide ranging interpretation of Mexican historical past and tradition from the pre-Hispanic and colonial eras during the 20th century. Drawing on economics, psychology, literature, movie, and background, he unearths how improvement techniques have fostered evident inequalities, uncovers the basic function of race and sophistication in perpetuating poverty, and sheds new mild at the modern Mexican truth. all through, Ruiz lines a legacy of dependency on outsiders, and considers the weighty position the U.S. has performed, beginning with an unjust battle that price Mexico part its territory. in keeping with Ruiz’s a long time of analysis and shuttle in Mexico, this penetrating paintings is helping us larger comprehend the place the rustic has come, why it really is the place it really is at the present time, and the place it will probably cross within the future.

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Mayeques, usually conquered people bound to the soil like the serfs of medieval Europe, tilled the lands, bestowed as a reward for a meritorious deed—valor in war, for example—to a tectecubtzin, or lord. By the sixteenth century, the owners of these lands formed a powerful landed nobility. Democracy, as Westerners know it, was nowhere to be found. A hierarchy of priests shaped politics, their presence felt even in military affairs. At the pinnacle of the theocracy stood the monarch, both priest and warrior, as well as chief priest, chief general, and chief judge.

The rot was not simply in the political sphere. It sapped the strength of agriculture and commerce. The crown’s eagerness to intervene arbitrarily in colonial affairs compelled merchants and hacendados to operate with one ear attuned to politics. They used family relations, political influence, and family prestige to obtain loans and credit, to win lucrative contracts, to avoid paying import duties, and to defend fraudulent land claims. This was the inheritance bequeathed to Mexicans. To quote one scholar, “We know now that with rare exceptions ex-colonials .

Meanwhile, the macehualtines, the poor, not only did the cooking, cleaning, and caring for children of the home but, in addition, labored in the fields, made ceramic pots, wove cloth, and cooked tortillas and tamales for sale in the marketplace. Like men the world over, Aztec males, whatever their status in society, employed a double standard. ” It was the duty of women to bear children, to care for them, and, most important, to transmit Aztec culture and traditions to them. ” Men of the elite prized virginity in their women, equating it with honor, but were themselves polygamists.

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