By J N Lester, J W Birkett
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Additional info for Microbiology and chemistry for environmental scientists and engineers
Examples of the range of vegetative morphology are shown in Fig. 1. 2, together with some examples. Birkett Fig. 1 Examples of the range of vegetative morphology in the algae. 2) and those which are motile by means of flagella regardless of the phyla to which they belong, collectively known as flagellates. Typical examples of this latter group would be Euglena and Chlamydomonas. Some multicellular algae are also included under this general heading, despite their immotility in the mature state. This is justified because during reproduction they frequently form motile cells or gametes which closely resemble unicellular flagellates and this demonstrates that these organisms are closely related.
Minimum, optimum and maximum) of 10°C, 37°C and 45 °C respectively. Thermophilic bacteria grow only poorly at temperatures of 50–60°C. An example is Bacillus stearothermophilus (30°C, 55°C, 75°C). Psychrophiles grow in cooler environments, below 20°C, and frequently have optima of 15°C or less. Some mesophilic bacteria with wide temperature tolerance can grow at 0°C; these are termed psychrotrophs. Many marine bacteria and those involved in biological wastewater treatment processes in cold climates are psychrophiles and psychrotrophs.
Pathogenic organisms are frequently capsulated and as a result exhibit increased resistance to phagocytosis by white blood cells. One of the most important functions of extracellular polymers with regard to public health engineering is their involvement in the process of flocculation, by which activated sludge bacteria are aggregated into flocs. The polymeric floc structure may also entrap non-capsulated bacteria, and protects the flocculated cells from predation by protozoa. 3 Identification of bacteria Bacteria are identified on the basis of a number of different criteria, including their morphological, physiological and, more recently, their genetic characteristics.