By Dr. Paul Francis Gordon, Mr. Peter Gregory (auth.)
The foundations of the chemical dyestuffs have been laid in 1856 whilst W. H. Perkin chanced on the dye Mauveine. At nearly an analogous time sleek chemistry was once developing itself as an immense technology. therefore, the chemistry of dyes turned that department of natural chemistry during which the early medical theories have been first used. This early eminence has now been mostly misplaced. in truth, a lot of our instructional and instructing associations pay little recognition to this very important department of natural chemistry. We think that this booklet may also help to rectify this unlucky state of affairs. nearly all of books which have been released with regards to dyes were technologically biased and, in our opinion, don't attract the mainstream natural chemist. we now have, for this reason, aimed toward generating a ebook which emphasises the function of natural chemistry in dyestuffs and we've got incorporated applicable sleek theories, specifically the fashionable molecular orbital ways. we now have assumed that the reader possesses an information of the fundamental ideas of natural chemistry;* the single different requirement is a normal curiosity in natural chemistry.** The booklet may still curiosity the newcomer to chemistry, the verified educational, and the dyestuffs chemist himself.
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Extra resources for Organic Chemistry in Colour
4) and is present in nitro, arylmethane and polymethine dyes (see Chap. 5). As was the case with the hydroxy group, the amino group is almost always introduced via the intermediacy of another group. Probably the most popular method is by the reduction of a nitro group; the method normally employed is known as the Bechamp method. 3 Synthesis of Dye Intermediates 43 an acid are mixed in water with an initial heating period to initiate the reaction. The reduction proceeds according to Eq. 15 and works for many nitro compounds.
20. 20 Typical anionic dyes contain COf or SOj'l groups whilst a typical cationic dye would contain a NRf group (also see diazahemicyanines). 6 52 Classification and Synthesis of Dyes Thus, o-nitroaniline is diazotised to give the diazonium salt and this is converted to the o-cyanonitrobenzene with copper I cyanide (Sandmeyer reaction). The o-cyanonitrobenzene is then reduced to the o-cyanoaniline. 21. 21 The most important commercial benzoisothiazole is the nitrobenzoisothiazole (67), prepared by an analogous route but starting from 2-cyano-4-nitroaniline.
The iron catalyst is added either directly or is formed in situ by the addition of iron to the reaction mixture (2 Fe + 3 X2 ~ 2 FeX3 ). In the presence of catalyst halogenation proceeds by electrophilic attack of the halonium ion (FeX3 + X2 ~ X E9 + FeX,i') at the aromatic nucleus to give the corresponding halobenzene. Thus, benzene is chlorinated by passing a stream of chlorine gas into benzene containing a catalytic amount of FeCl3 at approximately 30°C. Similarly toluene is chlorinated to give a mixture of ortho and para-chlorotoluenes which is separated by fractional distillation.