By Dendy, Philip Palin; Heaton, Brian
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Extra info for Physics for Diagnostic Radiology
Physics for Medical Imaging, 2nd edition. Saunders, Elsevier, pp 1–21, Chapter 1. Bushberg J T, Seibert A J A, Leidholdt E M and Boone J M 2002. The essential physics of medical imaging, 2nd edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 17–29. Johns H E and Cunningham J R 1983. The Physics of Radiology, 4th edition. Thomas Springfield, Chapter 2. Meredith W J and Massey J B 1977. Fundamental Physics of Radiology, 3rd edition. Wright Bristol. Describe in simple terms the structure of the atom and explain what is meant by atomic number, atomic weight and radionuclide.
If a is in m2, t in s and E in joules, the units of I will be J m–2s–1. 11 Quantum Properties of Radiation As well as showing the properties of waves, short-wavelength EM radiation, such as X and gamma rays, can sometimes show particle-like properties. Each particle is in fact a small packet of energy and the size of the energy packet (ε) is related to frequency ( f ) and wavelength (λ) by the fundamental equations hc λ where h is the Planck constant and c is the speed of EM waves. 6 × 10 –34 J s ε = hf = e (in joules) = 2 × 10 −25 λ (in metres) Thus, the smaller the value of λ, the larger the value of the energy packet.
14 Linear Energy Transfer Beams of ionising radiation are frequently characterised in terms of their linear energy transfer (LET). This is a measure of the rate at which energy is transferred to the medium and hence of the density of ionisation along the track of the radiation. Although a difficult concept to apply rigorously, it will suffice here to use a simple definition, namely that LET is the energy transferred to the medium per unit track length. It follows from this definition that radiations which are easily stopped will have a high LET, those which are penetrating will have a low LET.