By Utrcki L.A. (ed.)
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Extra resources for Polymer Blends Handbook 2 vols set
The intercepts of the steepest tangential line with the horizontal lines deﬁning the volume fraction of either one of the two polymeric ingredients, φ = 0 and 1, deﬁne the thickness of the interphase, ∆l [Helfand and Tagami, 1971, 1972]. , 1993; Yukioka and Inoue, 1993, 1994]. , 1999]. For high molecular weight (M → ∞) binary blends, the Helfand and Tagami theory predicts that in binary blends: (i) the interfacial thickness, ¨l is inversely proportional to the interfacial tension coefﬁcient,v, the product, ¨lv being independent of the thermodynamic interaction parameter, χ, (ii) the surface free energy is proportional to χ1/2; (iii) the chain-ends of both polymers concentrate at the interface; (iv) any low molecular weight third component is repulsed to the interface; and (v) the interfacial tension coefﬁcient increases with molecular weight to an asymptotic value: v = v - aoM-2/3.
Third phase in binary polymer alloys, enhanced by inter-diffusion or compatibilization. Thickness of this layer varies with the blend components and compatibilization method from 2 to 60 nm. Polymer or copolymer that either added to a polymer blend or generated there during reactive processing modiﬁes its interfacial character and stabilizes the morphology. Compatibilization by incorporation of a compatibilizer, usually either a copolymer or multipolymer. Compatibilization by physical means: high stress ﬁeld, thermal treatment, irradiation, etc.
The device simulated the dispersive processes that take place in internal mixers and extruders. A model of step-wise generation of morphology was proposed, where the original pellet (of the dispersed phase) undergoes deformation into elongated plates, that under stress Introduction to Polymer Blends break into ﬁbers and ﬁnally into drops. The ﬁnal morphology is a result of dispersion and coalescence processes that depend on the viscoelastic character of the component, the interfacial tension properties, and the stress history (see Chapter 9 on compounding).