By Ronald D. Franklin
Psychologists are lower than expanding strain to illustrate the ecological validity in their overview procedures--to convey that the innovations concluding their reviews are appropriate to pressing matters within the criminal and social coverage arenas, akin to predicting dangerousness, awarding reimbursement, and selecting a custodial father or mother. How a lot harm does a referred sufferer have? Who or what "caused" the wear? What influence will it have on his or her destiny existence, paintings, and kinfolk? And what could be performed to remediate the wear? the aim of this ebook is to supply sound target tools for answering those questions. It integrates the data of skilled practitioners who provide cutting-edge summaries of the easiest present methods to comparing tough situations with that of simple theorists who describe rising equipment in either predictive and inferential records, resembling Bayesian networks, that experience confirmed their price in different medical fields. Arguably, the firm of mental evaluation is so interdependent with that of information research that makes an attempt to make inferences with out attention of statistical implications is malpractice. Prediction in Forensic and Neuropsychology: Sound Statistical Practices clarifies the method of speculation trying out and is helping to push the medical interpretation of mental info into the twenty first century. It constitutes a necessary source for all of the stakeholders within the review process--practitioners, researchers, lawyers, and policymakers.
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Additional info for Prediction in Forensic and Neuropsychology: Sound Statistical Practices
Likelihood Ratios. Likelihood ratios (A), also known as Bayes factors, are discussed in chapter 5. They represent the ratio of probabilities associated with two hypotheses. The ratio is based on the law of likelihood and compares the relative abilities of measures to identify one distribution as more likely to contain a particular observation than another distribution. See chapter 4, this volume, for additional discussion. STATlSTICAL METHODS FOR HYPOTHESIS TESTING As hypotheses are developed, factors influencing the evaluation of each hypothesis should be considered.
This page intentionally left blank 3 Neuropsychological Hypothesis Testing Ronald I). D. St. S. court of law. The rule in a criminal trial is that the defendant is to be presumed innocent and can bejudged guilty only if the prosecution proves guilt beyond a reasonabledoubt. Furthermore,the trial can yield one of only twopossible verdicts: guilty or not guilty. Not guilty, in this context, is not synonymous with innocent; it means only that guilt was not demonstrated with a high degree of certainty.
Appropriate Advocacy A good argument can be made for independent advocacy of an expert’s own opinion and of the underlying clinical condition it represents. This is quite different from being an advocate for the plaintiff or the defense irrespective of the underlying clinical condition. It is entirely ethical for an 22 RUFFALO expert to make a forceful presentation of data and reasoning for an opinion that the expert holds. ’’ Singer and Nievod (1987) provided the following advice that embodies the spirit of appropriate advocacy of opinion: To function well in the courtroom, the expert must be an articulate, interesting, and believable teacher.