By John B. Watson
Excerpt from Psychology From the viewpoint of a Behaviorist
While the anxious process, muscle tissue and glands were given a little bit specific therapy in chapters, it truly is learned that in simple terms the especially pupil will grasp them. they are often passed over with out injuring the continuity of the textual content. i've got given only a few neurological schemes and mind photos within the closing elements of the textual content, simply because, commonly, such static pic tures intervene with the student's seize of functionality. At most sensible, they're lazy substitutes for a extra thorough examine of the func tion itself.
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Additional resources for Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist
During the early history of psychology, tests were developed largely around sensory reactions. Fairly serviceable tests of keenness of vision, auditory acuity and color defects have been in use for more than fifty years. Sometime later methods of testing accuracy of motor coijrdination, speed of reacting to simple and complex situations appeared. Until the last two decades such tests were incorporated in the general treatment of psychology. These tests were looked upon as a part of the routine of the laboratory and no particular use was made of them except in the testing of railway and marine engineers.
The use of the test can possibly be left to individuals who are not psychologists, but who may have received special instructions in its use. A slightly different task it a t hand when we have to ask the question: What are the general factors which enter into the make-up of a successful lawyer, statesman, newspaper correspondent, or aviator. We may say in advance that no very serviceable dorrelations throwing light upon such questions have yet been obtained. To make the problem specific we may take up the study of the make-up of a successful aviator : What factors in the previous life of the aviator make for success in flying?
METHODSEMPLOYED IN OBTAINING CONDITIONED MOTOR REFLEXES. -In a similar way, Bechterew has shown that reaction in both striped and smooth muscles can be conditioned. These conditioned motor reflexes are quite common in daily life. We see them often in moving-picture tragedies; as, for example, when the villain displays a revolver and pulls the trigger, or strikes the unfortunate hero over the head with a black-jack, the mere sight of these acts makes many in the audience jump or withdraw exactly as though the sound were presefit, or the blow had fallen upon their own heads.