By John Pollack
A presidential speechwriter for invoice Clinton explores the hidden energy of analogy to gasoline proposal, attach rules, spark innovation, and form results
From the meatpacking crops that encouraged Henry Ford's first relocating meeting line to the "domino theory" that led the USA into Vietnam to the "bicycle for the mind" that Steve Jobs predicted because the Macintosh computing device, analogies have performed a dynamic function in shaping the realm round us—and nonetheless do today.
Analogies are way more advanced than their SAT stereotype and lie on the very middle of human cognition and creativity. when we observe this, we commence seeing them everywhere—in advertisements, apps, political debates, felony arguments, trademarks, and euphemisms, to call quite a few. At their absolute best, analogies encourage new methods of pondering, permit invention, and inspire humans to motion. regrettably, no longer each analogy that earrings precise is correct. That's why, at their worst, analogies can misinform, manage, or lie to us into catastrophe. The problem? recognizing the variation earlier than it's too late.
Rich with attractive tales, amazing examples, and a pragmatic approach to overview the reality or effectiveness of any analogy, Shortcut will enhance serious considering, increase creativity, and supply readers a clean method of resolving a few of today's so much intractable demanding situations.
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Extra info for Shortcut: How Analogies Reveal Connections, Spark Innovation, and Sell Our Greatest Ideas
In Germany, such developments are manifested directly in the German Federal Government’s internationalisation motto ‘Brain Gain statt [instead of] Brain Drain’ (BMBF 2000a; 2000b; 2001), describing the role that EMI programmes play in retaining domestic students, accessing the steady flow of international students towards the Englishspeaking realm and retaining such students after HE study. While Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands have actively been introducing EMI programmes since the 1980s, predating all other European countries (Coleman 2006, pp.
1 depicts the components of the ‘Catherine Wheel’ model employed. In effect, the model suggests there is a direct correlation between competence in a language, its social use and desirability as ‘symbolic capital’ (Bourdieu 1986, p. 250), the presence and demand for products in and through the language, and the motivation to learn/ use it, which consequently enhances competence, forming a cyclical process or ‘wheel’. Each of the stages in the cycle is documented within the elliptical discs, while progression between the components of the cycle is illustrated in the figure by means of the unidirectional arrows.
He continues by outlining the important aspects of language planning in the form of an accounting framework to help identify the forces impelling planning activities. ‘What actors, attempt to influence what behaviours, of which people, for what ends, under what conditions, by what means, through which decision-making processes, with what effect’ (Cooper 1989, p. 97 – emphasis added). The prioritisation of ‘actors’ at the beginning of the framework highlights the importance of agency in any language-planning activity and above all the top-down nature of the process.