By Dennis R. Carter
The intimate dating among shape and serve as inherent within the layout of animals may be nowhere extra obtrusive than within the musculoskeletal approach. This booklet, approximately how functionality determines shape, addresses the position of mechanical components within the improvement, variation, upkeep, getting older, and service of skeletal tissues. The authors discuss with this strategy as mechanobiology and improve their subject inside of an evolutionary framework. They convey how degenerative problems equivalent to arthritis and osteoporosis are regulated via an analogous mechanical methods that impression general improvement and progress. Skeletal functionality and shape bridges very important gaps between disciplines, supplying a standard floor for a multidisciplinary realizing.
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Extra resources for Skeletal Function and Form: Mechanobiology of Skeletal Development, Aging, and Regeneration
And D. Gray (1970). ” Am J Anat 129: 121–40. Gould, S. (1977). Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Gould, S. J. (1989). Wonderful life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. New York, W. W. Norton. Gould, S. J. and R. C. Lewontin (1979). ” Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 205: 581–98. Haines, R. (1938). ” J Anat 72: 323–43. Haines, R. (1969). Epiphyses and sesamoids. Biology of the Reptilia. C. Gans. New York, Academic Press: 81–115. Haines, R. W. (1942). ” Biol Rev 17: 267–91.
The tethering forces created by tendons and ligaments on the growing skeleton may play an important morphogenetic role in the embryonic period even prior to the initiation of muscle contractions. At approximately ﬁve to seven weeks of prenatal life, most of the skeletal elements, muscles, tendons, and ligaments characteristic of the adult have formed. Involuntary contractions of the newly formed muscle ﬁbers commence at approximately this stage, coinciding with the initiation of ossiﬁcation in the cartilaginous endoskeleton.
The mineral component of bone exists mainly as carbonated apatite. On a developmental basis, bone can be categorized as either primary or secondary. Primary bone is the first bone formed in any region. It is created by intramembranous ossification, direct bone apposition at the perichondrium and periosteum, or endochondral ossification. In intramembranous ossification, bone is formed directly within a mesenchymal cell condensation. Appositional bone growth, which can be considered to be a form of intramembranous ossification, can occur on the surfaces of cartilage or bone and involves the direct formation of organic bone matrix, or osteoid, followed by mineralization.