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By Todd A. Kuiken, Aimee E. Schultz Feuser, Ann K. Barlow

"This reference covers medical and bioengineering elements of muscle reinnervation, a favored new approach on the boundary of biomedical and rehabilitation engineering and neuroscience. With contributions from pioneers within the box, the e-book offers a assessment of muscle reinnervation from a biomedical engineering and medical point of view. It describes neuroscience and different similar neuroprosthetic innovations. A Read more...

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By Todd A. Kuiken, Aimee E. Schultz Feuser, Ann K. Barlow

"This reference covers medical and bioengineering elements of muscle reinnervation, a favored new approach on the boundary of biomedical and rehabilitation engineering and neuroscience. With contributions from pioneers within the box, the e-book offers a assessment of muscle reinnervation from a biomedical engineering and medical point of view. It describes neuroscience and different similar neuroprosthetic innovations. A Read more...

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Muscle Nerve 28 (5):525–541. Sunderland, S. 1978. Nerves and Nerve Injuries. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. , and J. K. S. Jansen. 1977. Extent of sprouting of remaining motor units in partly denervated immature and adult rat soleus muscle. Neuroscience 2 (4):523–535. , D. Ceballos, J. J. Vilches, and X. Navarro. 2000. Influence of aging on peripheral nerve function and regeneration. J Peripher Nerv Syst 5 (4):191–208. Waller, A. 1850. Experiments on the sections of glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves of the frog and observations of the alterations produced thereby in the structure of their primitive fibers.

With subcutaneous fat layers of 0 to 3 mm, 95% of the signal power is contributed by the first 6 to 15 mm of muscle (Lowery et al. 2003). Thus target muscle should ideally be at least 1 cm thick. The width of the muscle ideally should be bigger than the standard electrode spacing, which is generally 2 to 3 cm. 3). The subcutaneous fat lying over muscle acts as a spatial filter, greatly attenuating the surface EMG signal and reducing the focus of the recording area. Reducing the depth of the fat layer from 18 mm (the thickness typically found over the chest or outer upper arm) to 3 mm dramatically increases the amplitude of the EMG signal, by a factor of about 5 (Kuiken et al.

A. Kuiken. 2008. Targeted reinnervation to improve prosthesis control in transhumeral amputees. A report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 90 (2):393–400. Ruijs, A. , J. B. Jaquet, S. Kalmijn, H. Giele, and S. E. Hovius. 2005. Median and ulnar nerve injuries: a meta-analysis of predictors of motor and sensory recovery after modern microsurgical nerve repair. Plast Reconstr Surg 116 (2):484–494; discussion 495–496. , A. Krichevsky, A. Sumarto, et al. 2009. Peripheral nerve injuries: an international survey of current treatments and future perspectives.

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