By Subhash Chandra Parija
This e-book offers a accomplished insurance of uncomplicated and medical microbiology, together with immunology, bacteriology, virology and mycology, in a transparent and succinct demeanour. The textual content contains morphological good points and id of every organism besides the pathogenesis of illnesses, medical manifestations, diagnostic laboratory checks, therapy and prevention and regulate of ensuing infections besides most modern advances within the box.
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Additional info for Textbook of Microbiology and Immunology
They can grow at a high temperature range of 55–80ЊC. B. stearothermophilus is an example. 6. 0. Many food items, such as pickles and cheese, are prevented from spoilage by acids produced during fermentation. V. 9) pH. Osmotic pressure Microbes obtain almost all their nutrients in solution from surrounding water. Hence factors such as osmotic pressure and salt concentration of the solution affect the growth of bacteria. Bacteria by virtue of mechanical strength of their cell wall are able to withstand a wide range of external osmotic variations.
2-8. Chapter 2 Cytoplasmic membrane Section I Lipoteichoic acid Schematic diagram of the cell wall of the Gram-positive bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide Outer membrane Section III Porin proteins (Pore) Lipoprotein Nutrient-binding protein Peptidoglycan Carrier protein Cytoplasmic membrane FIG. 2-9. Schematic diagram of the cell wall of the Gram-negative bacteria. The lipoprotein stabilizes the outer membrane of the Gramnegative cell wall. Outer membrane: The outer membrane is a bilayered structure; its inner part resembles in composition with that of the cell membrane, while its outer part contains a distinctive component called lipopolysaccharide.
Sterilization controls: Various sterilization controls are used to determine the efficacy of sterilization by moist heat. These include (a) thermocouples, (b) chemical indicators, and (c) bacteriological spores as mentioned below: (a) Thermocouples are used to record temperatures directly in autoclaves by a potentiometer. (b) Brown’s tube is the most commonly used chemical indicator of moist heat sterilization in the autoclave. It contains red solution that turns green when exposed to temperature of 121°C for 15 minutes in an autoclave.