Download The Carbonyl Group: Volume 2 (1970) PDF

Content:
Chapter 1 Equilibrium additions to carbonyl compounds (pages 1–69): Yoshiro Ogata and Atsushi Kawasaki
Chapter 2 Oxidation of aldehydes and ketones (pages 71–156): Herbert S. Verter
Chapter three Enolization (pages 157–240): S. Forsen and M. Nilsson
Chapter four Oxocarbons and their reactions (pages 241–275): Robert West and Joseph Niu
Chapter five Mass spectrometry of carbonyl compounds (pages 277–341): J. H. Bowie
Chapter 6 Radiation chemistry of ketones and aldehydes (pages 343–394): Gordon R. Freeman

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Content:
Chapter 1 Equilibrium additions to carbonyl compounds (pages 1–69): Yoshiro Ogata and Atsushi Kawasaki
Chapter 2 Oxidation of aldehydes and ketones (pages 71–156): Herbert S. Verter
Chapter three Enolization (pages 157–240): S. Forsen and M. Nilsson
Chapter four Oxocarbons and their reactions (pages 241–275): Robert West and Joseph Niu
Chapter five Mass spectrometry of carbonyl compounds (pages 277–341): J. H. Bowie
Chapter 6 Radiation chemistry of ketones and aldehydes (pages 343–394): Gordon R. Freeman

Show description

Read Online or Download The Carbonyl Group: Volume 2 (1970) PDF

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Additional resources for The Carbonyl Group: Volume 2 (1970)

Sample text

Equilibrium additions to carbonyl compounds FIGURE 11. 2" and ionic strength 0-2305. For the meaning of kz and f see Figure 8. base catalysis; the difftxence may be due to the lower basicity of amides 296. C. B 3 +B (89) (92) (93) (941 50 Yoshiro Ogata and Atsushi Kawasaki Spec;Jichydronium ion catalysis for the reaction of melamine fast + + H+ + CHZOH CH2=O RNH2 + + CHZOH slow (95) + RNHSCHaClH fast R & H Z C H 2 0 H & RNHCH,OH S’ecijc (96) + H+ (97) Lydroxide ion cataEysisfor the reaction of benzamide RCONH, + OH- + CHZ=O R C O N H C H Z O - + HZO RCONH- fast & RCONHslow fas t + H20 RCONHCH,ORCONHCHZOH (98) (99) + OH- (100) The rate law for the hydroxide ion-catalysed reaction of amides or phenylureas with formaldehyde is observed to depend on the concentration of formaldehyde.

Equilibrium additions 47 to carbonyl compounds FIGURE8. 2, where y is [CH,COO-]/ [CH,COOH], k2 the observed second-order rate constant and f the molar fraction of unhydrated a1dehyde3O5: '= [RCHO] [RCHO] [RCH(OH),] + increases linearly with the increase in concentration of acid cataIyst (Figure 8) and that of base catalyst (Figure 9), the rate constant being expiessed as equation (88) (cf. equation 9) which indicates the preseoce NH2CONH, k = k,[HzO] + R C H d T NH,CONHCHROH + kH[H30+] + koH[OH-] + k H A [ H A ] + (87) kB[p] (88) of general acid and general base ~ a t a l y s i s ~ * As ~ * shown ~ ~ ~ *in~ ~ ~ .

For the meaning of kz and f see Figure 8. base catalysis; the difftxence may be due to the lower basicity of amides 296. C. B 3 +B (89) (92) (93) (941 50 Yoshiro Ogata and Atsushi Kawasaki Spec;Jichydronium ion catalysis for the reaction of melamine fast + + H+ + CHZOH CH2=O RNH2 + + CHZOH slow (95) + RNHSCHaClH fast R & H Z C H 2 0 H & RNHCH,OH S’ecijc (96) + H+ (97) Lydroxide ion cataEysisfor the reaction of benzamide RCONH, + OH- + CHZ=O R C O N H C H Z O - + HZO RCONH- fast & RCONHslow fas t + H20 RCONHCH,ORCONHCHZOH (98) (99) + OH- (100) The rate law for the hydroxide ion-catalysed reaction of amides or phenylureas with formaldehyde is observed to depend on the concentration of formaldehyde.

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