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By Kara Rogers

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By Kara Rogers

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Extra resources for The Cardiovascular System (The Human Body)

Sample text

It empties into the azygous vein slightly above the entrance of the hemiazygous. All of the veins of the arm are tributaries of the subclavian veins. They are found in both superficial and deep locations and possess valves. Most of the deep veins are arranged in pairs with cross connections between them. Venous drainage of the hand is accomplished superficially by small anastomosing (interconnecting) veins that unite to form the cephalic vein, coursing up the radial (thumb) side of the forearm, and the basilic vein, running up the ulnar side of the forearm and receiving blood from the hand, forearm, and arm.

The wall of the capillary is extremely thin and acts as a semipermeable membrane that allows substances containing small molecules, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, fatty acids, glucose, and ketones, to pass through the membrane. Oxygen and nutritive material pass into the tissues through the wall at the arteriolar end of the capillary unit. Carbon dioxide and waste products move through the membrane into the vessel at the venous end of the capillary bed. Constriction and dilation of the arterioles is primarily responsible for regulating the flow of blood into the capillaries.

Reabsorption of cellular calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum is important because it prevents the development of muscle tension. In the resting state, two proteins, troponin and tropomyosin, bind to actin molecules and inhibit interaction between actin and myosin, thereby blocking muscle contraction. When calcium concentration increases during depolarization, it shifts the conformation of troponin and tropomyosin, and actin is able to associate with myosin. As calcium is taken up again by the sarcoplasmic reticulum the myocardial cell relaxes.

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