By Stanisław Herbst (auth.), Barbara Bieńkowska (eds.)
On February 19, 1973, 5 centuries have elapsed because the start of Nicolaus Coperni cus - the best astronomer of the Renaissance interval - who rediscovered for us the heliocentric version of the sun method, and documented it through his life's paintings in one of these demeanour as to make its suggestion an everlasting estate of mankind. The lifetime of Copernicus, extending from 19 February 1473 to his dying on 24 may well 1543, was once no longer too wealthy in adventures or biographical proof. Born in Toruti from a kinfolk of Polish burghers, he obtained his first college education in Cracow among 1491-1494. From Cracow he proceeded to Italy to spend the years among 1496-1503 on the Universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara - with occasional visits to Rom- in practise for an ecclesiastical occupation. while Bishop Watzenrode - his consumer and maternal uncle - might not expand his depart, Copernicus lower back to Poland in 1503 to go into the carrier of the church institution, which quickly ended in a canonry on the Frombork (Frauenburg) Cathedral in Warmia. And there - within the northern mists no longer faraway from the Baltic seashores - in a land so varied in weather from the sunny Italy of his adolescence - he used to be destined to spend the remainder of his life.
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Additional info for The Scientific World of Copernicus: On the Occasion of the 500th Anniversary of his Birth 1473–1973
1523-1525: Copernicus chancellor of the chapter. 1524, June 3: Copernicus sends Bernard Wapowski his criticism of Johannes Werner's The Motion of the Eighth Sphere. Known as Letter to Bernard Wapowski, the treatise written by Copernicus has come down to us in a number of copies made in the second half of the 16th century. 1528: Copernicus draws up the final version of his treatise on monetary reform (Monnetae cudendae ratio); he attends the conference of the Prussian Estates devoted to questions of reform held in Malbork and Elblag.
1539, end of May: Georg Joachim de Porris (Rheticus) arrives at Frombork. 1539-1540: Copernicus makes additions to the De revolutionibus manuscript. ' 1539, September: Rheticus writes Narratio prima. 1540, March: Narratio prima by Rheticus appears in Gdansk. 1541, August 20: Copernicus observes the eclipse of the Sun (the last known observation carried out by Copernicus). 1541, April-May: Copernicus to Kr61ewiec (Koenigsberg) attends the sick bed of a courtier of Duke Albrecht. 1541, October: Philipp Melanchthon condemns at Wittenberg the absurd thesis of Copernicus which 'moves the Earth and halts the Sun'.
1513-1516: Copernicus takes part in the discussion on the reformation of the calendar, submitting an answer to a questionnaire sent out by the Lateran Council's Calendar Commission. circa 1515: Copernicus begins work on his major opus, De revolutionibus. 1516-1519: Copernicus as administrator of the chapter estates resides at Olsztyn castle. 1517, August 15: the first monetary dissertation drawn up by Copernicus. 1519-1520: Copernicus at Frombork. 1519-1521: war with the Teutonic Order. 1520, January: destruction of the chapter buildings outside Frombork castle in the Teutonic invasion.