By Zina O'Leary
The Social technology Jargon Buster tackles the main complicated thoughts within the social sciences in an easy-to-understand, erudite, and witty manner. Zina O’Leary brings striking readability and perception to even the main complicated phrases. This useful, down-to-earth dictionary is helping scholars new to the social sciences achieve an intensive figuring out of the foremost phrases. every one access incorporates a concise middle definition, a extra specified clarification, and an creation to the linked debates and controversies. additionally, the book includes an invaluable define of the sensible program of every time period, in addition to a listing of key figures and proposals for additional analyzing.
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Additional info for The Social Science Jargon Buster: The Key Terms You Need to Know
Qxd 8/9/2007 12:09 PM Page 17 common is the belief in ‘behaviourism’ outside clinical psychology. The concept of modifying behaviours through reward and punishment is central to our processes of socialization, child-rearing, and rehabilitation, and can be found in virtually all institutions from the family, to the workplace, to the prison. Key figures You may have heard of Ivan Pavlov whose dogs were conditioned to salivate at the ringing of a bell. Pavlov rang a bell when his dogs sighted food, and eventually removed the food as a stimulus but kept the bell.
E. soccer riots); collective conscious – sets of beliefs and sentiments that are common to ‘typical’ members of a society; and collective unconscious – the ancient and shared experience of the human race that arguably (1) resides in all individuals; (2) sits independent of personal psychology; and (3) acts to direct social and personal beliefs and behaviours. Debates and controversies There’s not a lot of debate on whether there’s power in collectivity – it’s generally accepted that there is. Debates more often centre on how collectivity affects the intellectual, emotional and physical responses of individuals.
Qxd 8/9/2007 12:10 PM Page 52 Culture Core definition The knowledge, values, beliefs, traditions, spirituality, emotive features, material products, lifestyles, and notions of community that exist in a society. Longer explanation They say ‘culture’ is notoriously hard to define. I think this is because culture not only surrounds us, but actually creates us. Yes, culture is socially constructed (see social constructionism). Social groups construct culture in any variety of ways (which leads to cultural diversity across the globe and even within neighbourhoods).