By Tim Friend
"The 3rd area" is the untold tale of the way the invention of a brand new type of lifestyles - first ridiculed, then neglected for the previous thirty years by means of mainstream scientists - is revolutionizing technology, undefined, or even our look for extraterrestrial lifestyles. type is a significant factor for technology: if you happen to do not know what you are looking at, how will you interpret what you spot? beginning with Carolus Linnaeus within the seventeenth century, scientists have lengthy struggled to reserve and categorize the various types of existence in the world. yet by way of the early twentieth century the tree of existence looked as if it would have stabilized, with major domain names of existence at its roots: single-celled and multi-celled organisms. All creatures healthy into the sort of teams. Or so we notion. yet in 1977, a lone scientist named Carl Woese made up our minds that archaea - biochemically and genetically specific organisms that reside and thrive in one of the most inhospitable environments in the world - have been a special type of lifestyles, in contrast to something visible in the world ahead of. This stunning discovery used to be totally incompatible with the long-standing class of existence as we all know it. yet because it became out, archaea weren't lifestyles as we all know it, and the tree of lifestyles needed to be uprooted once more. Now, archaea are being hailed as some of the most vital clinical revelations of the twentieth century. "The 3rd area" tells the tale in their unusual capability and investigates their really good historical past to supply a riveting account of an incredible discovery.
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Additional info for The third domain: the untold story of archaea and the future of biotechnology
It was not until the 1860s that Louis Pasteur finally convinced the world that microbes are not spontaneously generated. He also succeeded in promoting the germ theory of disease. The next big technological revolution came in 1882 when the German microbiologist Robert Koch got down to the business of cultivating microorganisms in the lab and discovered the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis. To grow his bacterium, Koch’s wife developed a nutritional agar upon which microorganisms would grow into colonies on plates.
A group of venture capitalists (VCs) originally set Venter up with enough money to operate TIGR for about 10 years. To earn their investment back, the VCs created three for-profit companies to develop products from the gene sequencing data generated at TIGR. One of the companies was Human Genome Sciences, the second was Industrial Genome Sciences (IGS), and the third was Plant Genome Sciences. Mel Simon, an early pioneer of biotechnology based in San Diego, was instrumental in establishing Industrial Genome Sciences with Venter and the venture capitalist Wally Steinberg.
Suddenly they possessed the ability to very rapidly identify 16s rRNA gene segments from raw DNA that was purified from a handful of dirt. They started cataloging species and comparing the genetic fingerprints of the RNA genes of many microorganisms. If they found a piece that had not been seen before, they probably had a new species. Pace bridged the two revolutions. However, while he could identify BUG HUNT 43 microbial species by 16s rRNA PCR, Pace could not determine the microbes’ other genes with his methods.