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WINKLER, Die Chemische Analyse, Vol. XXXV. (Ausgewahlte Untersuchungsverfahren fur das chemische Laboratorium), Part II, 1936, p. 27. 1 PERKINS, / . Chem. Soc, 1894, 65, 20. 36 THE HALOGENS important for its use in the syntheses, in industry as well as in the laboratory, of many substances of application in war, as chloroacetophenone, the chlorovinyl arsines, etc. Chlorine can also combine directly with certain compounds, such as the addition to sulphur dioxide and to carbon monoxide to form sulphuryl chloride and carbonyl chloride (phosgene) respectively.

The usual method is to divide the gases into the following classes : (A) T H E TOXIC SUFFOCANTS (OR LUNG IRRITANTS). These include those gases which act principally on the respiratory t r a c t : chlorine, phosgene, chloropicrin, etc. (B) T H E VESICANTS. These include those substances whose characteristic action is to produce blisters on the skin: dichloroethyl sulphide, chlorovinyl dichloroarsine, etc. (C) T H E IRRITANTS. These include substances having lachryma- BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATIONS 29 tory power : benzyl chloride and bromide, and those causing sneezing (the sternutatories) : diphenyl chloroarsine, etc.

985 1,769 9-97 8-48 7-27 6-39 5-69 The solution obtained has a yellowish-green colour and is termed chlorine water. By cooling this solution to — 8° C. 8H2O separates ; on heating, it again decomposes. Chlorine also dissolves easily in carbon tetrachloride (at 13° C. to the extent of 10% by weight), in sulphuryl chloride, in tetrachloroethane and in pentachloroethane. 2 Chemically, chlorine is one of the most active elements and combines directly with almost all simple bodies. It combines with hydrogen under the influence of light and heat, and reacts energetically with most of the non-metals forming the respective chlorides.

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