By Colin G. Calloway
Prior to eu incursions begun within the 17th century, the Western Abenaki Indians inhabited present-day Vermont and New Hampshire, quite the Lake Champlain and Connecticut River valleys. This heritage in their coexistence and conflicts with whites at the northern New England frontier files their survival as a people-recently at factor within the courts-and their wars and migrations, as a long way north as Quebec, through the first centuries of white contacts.Written basically and authoritatively, with sympathy for this long-neglected tribe, Colin G. Calloway's account of the Western Abenaki diaspora provides to the growing to be curiosity in remnant Indian teams of North the United States. This background of an Algonquian workforce on the outer edge of the Iroquois Confederacy is usually a tremendous contribution to normal Indian historiography and to stories of Indian white interactions, cultural patience, and ethnic id in North the United States.
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Additional resources for The Western Abenakis of Vermont, 1600-1800: War, Migration, and the Survival of an Indian People (Civilization of the American Indian)
Colonists frequently settled on lands that had been cleared and cultivated by previous occupants, although the Indians themselves were not to be seen. Unlike the decimation in southern New England, however, losses in Vermont were significantly off-set by the influx of refugees, which enabled the western Abenakis to resist English invasion for some eighty years. Escalating interethnic conflict and Puritan New England's strategy of armed conquest meant that war assumed a disproportionate importance in Indian societies and produced a distorted image of the Abenakis as warlike.
20 Many western Abenakis withdrew to the northern reaches of their territory or removed to Canada. Others clung tenaciously to their traditional lands, going "underground" or returning seasonally to areas that they had left but not abandoned. At the same time, Indians from outside Vermont sought asylum and often amalgamated with indigenous Abenaki communities. Grey Lock, the most prominent Indian war leader in Vermont's history, was a refugee from dislocated communities in Massachusetts. But Indian refugees who fled to Vermont in search of a haven from the devastating forces that engulfed their world found no more than a temporary refuge.
Johnson, reunited with her eleven-year-old son, Sylvanus, after a separation of four years, found that the boy had forgotten the English language, spoke a little broken French, but spoke Abenaki perfectly. 33 That an estimated 20 percent of the adult women captured from northern New England were either pregnant or carried new-born babies indicates the potential for a substantial influx of young white blood into Abenaki communities like St. html[1/17/2011 2:03:49 PM] next page > page_30 < previous page page_30 next page > Page 30 Abenakis were reluctant to return captives once they had adopted them.