By Armin K. Thron M.D. (auth.)
The suggestion for this treatise at the radiological anatomy of superficial and deep spinal twine vasculature developed from day-by-day regimen neuroradiological paintings. This was once additionally the cause of subdividing the monograph right into a postmortem anatomical and a medical half. the particular value of a transparent perception of radio anatomic basics used to be made transparent by way of many medical meetings with neurologists, neurosurgeons and orthopedists, the place an absence of data approximately medullary syndromes of suspected vascular beginning turned obtrusive. additionally between neuroradiologists there's nonetheless common uncertainty within the interpretation of myelograms and angiographies in such circumstances. A learn of the spinal cord's angioarchitecture is all of the extra justified and valuable contemplating the monstrous variety of descriptions of cerebro vascular anatomy and pathology. The scientific problem posed by way of sufferers being affected by partial or whole transverse spinal lesions has grown as a result of new diagnostic and healing ways. Myelography utilizing water-soluble distinction media, X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiography this present day enable and require either past and topographically and pathogenetically extra specific class of ailments of the spinal twine and its surrounding constructions. because of growth in microneurosurgery and interventional neuroradiology, even intramedullary lesions became increasingly more available and treatable. accordingly this monograph often addresses these all in favour of invasive healing recommendations and who're accustomed to the translation of radio anatomic findings. A finished description of medullary vascular syndromes will be past the scope of this treatise.
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Additional info for Vascular Anatomy of the Spinal Cord: Neuroradiological Investigations and Clinical Syndromes
Of these, anterolateral veins show the greatest continuity, replacing the median vein in its function if it is interrupted. Superficial transverse vessels connect the longitudinal ones, although not as densely as in the case of the arteries. Venous circles at the conus medullaris, connecting anterior and posterior channels are also found (Fig. 39). However, they are often supplemented or replaced here by intramedullary anastomoses and are much less constant than the arterial conus arcade. The contrast in calibers of the arteries and veins is striking.
The number of central arteries is 60 to 80 for the lumbosacral region (length 9-11 cm), 60-70 for the thoracic region (length 20-22 cm) and 50-60 for the cervical cord (length 10-12cm). As shown by Figs. 13, 17 and 21, the densest sequences of central arteries are found in the region of the enlargements with 7-12 arteries per centimeter. In the thoracic region, there are only 2-3 per centimeter. This equals an average of 59 per segment. Determining the angle between the sulcal arteries and the anterior spinal artery is not essential, since deviations are numerous and the course may change from cranial to caudal direction even among central arteries issued from the same descending or ascending branch.
Instead, they serve to distribute a constant blood supply in the dorsal part of the vasocorona. Evidence for this fact is that the dorsal longitudinal anastomoses can not only complement each other by varying caliber, but also completely replace one another in certain segments. This is one reason for conflicting opinions on their location. However, it must be noted that the dorsolateral trunk is normally more constant and of greater caliber. A pial arterial network mediates between the longitudinal trunk and the vessels that directly enter the spinal cord.